The plant Cercis, also called the scarlet, is a member of the legume family. The genus contains flowering trees or shrubs that shed their foliage for the winter. In total, experts count about 7-10 species living on the North American continent, in the countries of the south and southeast of Asia, as well as in the Mediterranean.
The name of the genus is associated with the shape of the fruits of its representatives - beans-pods with their seeds resemble a shuttle, a component of a loom, which in Greek is called "cercis". Cercis European is also called the Judas tree. It is interesting that this designation most likely arose not because of the connection with the biblical tradition, but from the modified phrase "tree from Judea" - it was from there that cercis began to spread throughout the countries of Europe.
Plant varieties growing in different parts of the world can differ in external characteristics - height, developmental characteristics and color of inflorescences, as well as in the degree of winter hardiness. Cercis species have a long lifespan - about 60 years. Treelike forms can reach heights of up to 18 m. Both trees and shrubs are deciduous. Their young twigs are reddish in color and have a smooth bark. As it develops, it darkens and becomes gray or olive-brownish.
The foliage is simple, ovoid, with a smooth edge and convex veins. The leaves are arranged spirally on the branches, attached to them with petioles. The leaf blades are up to 12 cm long and are complemented by medium-sized stipules that fall off in a short time. Young foliage is colored light green and darkens as it grows, becoming yellow by autumn, less often claret.
Certsis reach their peak of decorativeness in spring. Before the leaves bloom, flower buds form on their branches, in the axils of the leaves and even on the trunk, turning into purple or pink flowers with 5 petals. They have a bean-shaped corolla and a bell-shaped cup. Flowers, resembling pink moths from a distance, are collected in medium-sized inflorescences, brushes or bunches. The flowering of cercis lasts about a month, ending with full disclosure of foliage.
After flowering, pods up to 10 cm long are tied on the trees. Each pod contains up to 7 shiny seeds. Such seeds also look very impressive on plants, acquiring a reddish color by autumn.
Decorative trees. Cercis Canadian - Crimson
The table shows brief rules for growing cercis in the open field.
|Landing||The most optimal time for planting seedlings is spring.|
|Lighting||You can grow cercis both in a semi-shaded and in a sunny corner of the garden.|
|Watering mode||The plant does not need regular watering.|
|The soil||Alkaline soil with a good drainage layer is suitable for the plant.|
|Top dressing||The tree does not need systematic feeding.|
|Bloom||Flowering depends on the species and occurs mainly in the spring, lasts about a month.|
|Pruning||The crown is formed in autumn, shortening the shoots by no more than a third.|
|Reproduction||Seeds, layering, cuttings.|
|Pests||Occasionally attacked by aphids.|
|Diseases||Anthracnose on rare occasions.|
It is possible to grow cercis both in a semi-shady and in a sunny corner of the garden, sheltered from the cold north wind. Alkaline soil with a good drainage layer is suitable for the plant. You can correct the reaction of the soil by adding lime to it. Too heavy soil can be supplemented with sand.
Cercis seedlings must be planted in a permanent place in the first year of development. The roots of such plants quickly go to a depth, so transplants are considered very traumatic for them. In the first few years, cercis develop slowly, sometimes completely drying out the aerial part in 1-2 years of life. All this time, the plantings take root, so do not worry if the young bush looks completely dry during this period. At first, the seedling can maintain a height of about 20 cm, but at 2-4 years of life it starts growing sharply and can grow up to 1.5 m in a short time.
The root system of cercis develops very strongly, going up to 2 m in depth and up to 8 m in breadth. Such a vast nutritional area saturates the tree with moisture and necessary substances, therefore cercis will not need regular watering and feeding. The plant should be taken care of only during periods of long heat and drought.
As a rule, with proper care, cercis practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests. Only sometimes aphids can settle on plantings, from which they get rid of insecticides. In the spring, the tree trunk should be whitewashed. Before flowering, the crown of the plant can be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid in a weak concentration - this will serve as the prevention of anthracnose. The root area of young plants should be mulched for the winter.
If necessary, the cercis can be trimmed. The crown is formed in autumn, shortening the shoots by no more than a third. Usually, young (3-5 year old) plants are formed, and then they are limited to only sanitary pruning.
Orchard cercis can be obtained from seeds, as well as cuttings or cuttings.
The beans that ripen on the tree can be used to propagate it. Before sowing, it is recommended to soften or break the dense skin of the seeds. To do this, they are immersed in a hydrochloric acid solution or doused with boiling water. Such procedures improve the germination process, making the path easier for the sprout, although sometimes they can germinate without additional preparation.
Certsis are immediately sown to a permanent place - in the garden. For the winter, the crops are properly covered with dry leaves, spruce branches or a layer of peat. But thermophilic varieties of such a plant can only germinate in a mild climate - if there is no severe cold in winter.
Cuttings from the branches of cercis are cut in the fall, choosing strong shoots aged 2 or 3 years. Each cutting should have 2-3 buds and a length of about 20 cm. Freshly cut parts of the branches are immediately planted in the ground on the garden bed, deepening by about 10 cm. Before the onset of cold weather, such cuttings should have time to take root, which will allow them to successfully overwinter. If the aboveground part of such a seedling dies during the winter, young shoots can grow from the root in the spring. If there is a risk that the cuttings will not have time to take root in the fall, to preserve them, they are sent to winter in a box with wet sand, and in the spring they are planted in the ground.
Adult, well-developed cercis forms shoots in the root area. In the spring, such cuttings can be separated from the main plant and planted in the place where it will grow. Due to the presence of their own roots, such layers take root very quickly. During the first years of life, young cercis need to be looked after more carefully until they become effective - during this period they are more susceptible to heat, cold or bad weather.
Of all the varieties of cercis in gardening, European and Canadian species are most often found.
This species has a high degree of decorativeness. Cercis siliquastrum is covered with bright pink flowers in spring. Typically, these plants are trees up to 10 m tall. Sometimes near such a tree, numerous basal shoots can form, turning it into a kind of tall shrub. The plant has a strong trunk and lush crown. It blooms in the spring and lasts about a month before the foliage blooms. By autumn, the green leaves of the tree turn bright yellow.
This species is considered thermophilic and is suitable only for cultivation in the southern regions - such a plant will not tolerate long and severe frosts.
Due to its high frost resistance, this type is suitable for more northern regions. Cercis canadensis are trees up to 12 m tall. They have large heart-shaped foliage, with a green color and a smooth surface on the outside, and a bluish color and slight pubescence on the inside. By autumn, the leaves turn yellow. The flowering of the Canadian species is slightly inferior to the European in splendor. Such a plant has smaller flowers, painted in a light pink color. Flowers can appear both on the branches and on the trunk in bunches of about 5-8 flowers. Flowering occurs in late spring and ends in early summer. The pods with beans ripen by August, continuing to stay on the branches for a long time - some remain there for about a couple of years. The Canadian cercis has several hybrid forms with double or snow-white flowers, as well as varieties with foliage of various colors.
The trees of this species grow to a height of about 15 m. Cercis chinensis has large, heart-shaped foliage. Flowering occurs in May, at this time inflorescences-bunches are formed, composed of purple-pink flowers. Later, pods up to 12 cm long are formed in their place. The species is considered thermophilic and has varieties with white or purple-pink flowers.
Central Asian species also found in Afghanistan and Iran. May look like a shrub with woody shoots. Cercis griffithii usually grows up to 4 m in height, and in arboreal form - up to 10 m. It has rounded leathery foliage of deep green color. Tassel inflorescences form up to 7 pink-lilac flowers. It will be possible to grow this species only in regions with a mild climate.
American frost-resistant tree with a branched crown. Cercis occidentalis has bright green leaves and resembles a Canadian species during the flowering period. Flowers appear in May. By autumn, foliage may acquire not the usual yellow, but a reddish tint.
The species includes trees up to 10 m tall, as well as tall shrubs. Cercis reniformis is thermophilic. It forms small cluster inflorescences up to 10 cm long, located on short pedicels. The color of the flowers is bright pink. The foliage of the species is dark green, oval.
Another Chinese look. Cercis racemosa Oliv. is a tall tree with rich green foliage. By autumn, it acquires a yellow color. Flowering occurs in the spring. At this time, delicate purple flowers are formed on the plant, collected in large inflorescences-brushes. They are located on small pedicels or grow directly from the branches.
The attractive appearance and impressive size of the root system make the cercis an ideal saline plant. It is planted where the tree is not crowded and it can show itself in all its glory. Cercis shrubs can be turned into hedges. Such plantings also look good in combination with other plants, for example, conifers. But it is worth remembering that most conifers prefer acidic soil, while cercis loves alkaline.
Despite the lack of smell in flowers, cercis is considered a good honey plant and attracts bees to the site. The honey obtained from this plant is considered rare, it has a pleasant taste and aroma, and also benefits the body. The kidneys of the European type can be used as a seasoning, and the beneficial substances in the foliage of cercis make it possible to use it as a remedy against tuberculosis: it contains useful flavonoids. The bark of the plant is also used by Chinese healers as an antibacterial agent in the treatment of wounds.
Among flowering shrubs, this member of the legume family can rightfully be considered handsome. Its name comes from the Greek cercis, which means weaving shuttle. Indeed, the fruits of this plant resemble a shuttle, and it is called cercis canadensis. Sometimes in the literature it is also called the scarlet. However, this is incorrect, since the scarlet plants are plants belonging to the genus Cercedifillum, and not Cercis like cercis canadian... True, there are still external similarities between representatives of the two genera.
It is believed that lilacs do not require maintenance.
Like, in May it will bloom itself. But if you want to fully enjoy the beauty of this shrub, put in a little effort early in the season.
Start by removing snow, if any, from the bust area. What for? So that the soil warms up as well and quickly as possible.
Armed with pruning shears, cut off all dry, frozen branches in the crown of the bush. You can remove no more than a fifth of the shoots at a time. Be sure to lubricate all sections with garden pitch.
On a warm day, remove last year's leaves under the bush, loosen the soil and, if possible, make a circular groove with a diameter of 10 cm and a depth of 35-40 cm. When the soil warms up to + 5 ... + 6 degrees, apply fertilizers into it.
It is better to use mineral ones: for a bush under 5 years old, 10-15 g of nitroammofoska is enough (distribute evenly over the entire groove), for older plants, double the dose. After that, spill the groove well and fill it with compost or humus.
Lilac usually gives a large amount of root growth - it literally litters the area, and the plant spends considerable energy on it.
Here the rule is simple: remove the shoots, for which you slightly bare the bases of the shoots by digging out the ground, then cut out with a pruner, and then return the soil to its place.
If you want to turn a lilac bush into a tree, do it before the growing season. Remove all side shoots about 60 cm from the ground, and leave the rest of the branches in the same place.
Finally, I found time to start a new, very important topic - the distribution of rare garden and non-garden, domestic plants. Here you can ask questions, exchange experiences, and most importantly - offer seeds and planting material for exchange and distribution. Advertisements for the sale of planting material are inappropriate here. After all, look around - our garden plots are quite poor in the range of woody plants - at best 10-20 species, this is very little of that can grow in our latitudes. A wide variety is the basis of a stable plant community on your site, it is a guarantee of the health of all plants and a wealth of small and large animals, which means that diseases with pests will be within the framework. I know that many now have different rarities on the plots - they rejoice at themselves quietly, and why not dilute and distribute this joy to others? Here, for 25 years now, the red-leaved hazelnut has been growing in our country - beautiful and fruitful, during this time it grows and bears fruit among all familiar and unfamiliar summer residents on our summer cottage - it's nice!
Join you too!
I will be the first to present my proposal - I have a surplus of coffee tree seedlings (annuals are for a room and a loggia), a lot of seeds of various other woody plants-rarities: fruit - actinidia, seed chestnut (edible), Japanese quince (henomeles), large-fruited mulberry, mountain ash garden (coming soon), nuts of different types - including hazelnuts and very large walnuts, black and gray nuts, ornamental Manchurian - catalpa of 3 types, pavia, magnolia of 5-7 species, seeds of a tree peony (see photo), cotoneaster of different types, biota, cypress and juniper trees, thujas of various species, ptelei and pterostirax, canadensis cercis, soon there will be ginkgo and much more. I'll tell you how to grow.
All this and much more (and on order too) I collect and distribute and change - FOR VEGETABLES (carrots, onions, beets, turnips, potatoes) grown without chemicals, seeds and seedlings of other plants.
I am primarily interested in such plants - medlar, persimmon, ziziphus, dakeneya and other rare fruit and non-fruit crops.
With your own hands in the open ground, the tree can be propagated by seeds, layering and cuttings.
Since cercis belongs to legumes, its seeds must be scarified before planting. This procedure can be replaced by another: pour over the seeds with boiling water or hold them in a container with hydrochloric acid. This will subsequently help the future sprout to break through the shell.
At home, seedlings of cercis are not grown, it is customary to plant seeds immediately in the ground on the site. On top of the plantings, you need to lay dry leaves in a dense layer or cover the garden with coniferous spruce branches. When planting seeds in the ground, you need to keep in mind that if you have planted heat-loving varieties, then in winter at temperatures below five degrees, the seeds may die.
You need to prepare the cuttings in advance, it is best to do this in the fall. You can do it this way: cut off a two-year-old healthy shoot with at least two buds. After that, it is imperative to root the stalk in the open field by digging it in at an angle to a depth of fifteen centimeters.
Before frost appears, the cutting should take root, thus surviving the winter. If the aboveground part freezes in winter, a new sprout will appear from the roots in spring.
In this way, the tree is propagated in the spring. Periodically, layers appear near the root system of the tree. These cuttings can be neatly separated from the parent tree and planted separately. They usually develop quickly, as they already have a well-developed root system.
While the plant is young, systematic care is required for it, after it gets stronger, you can not worry about the health of the tree.
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