Do you like apricots and are you going to plant a tree in your backyard? It will be wise to find out how to care for it and what diseases of the apricot you will have to face before purchasing a cutting.
Each tree can be attacked by a variety of pests. Due to their vital activity, the plant begins to fade away, and the task of the gardener in this case is to cure the pet. Although it is always easier to perform actions that protect the plant and prevent disease from manifesting.
One of the most common phenomena is considered to be gum on apricot. This disease must certainly be cured, because the infected area will gradually expand its boundaries.
Apricot disease video
To heal the plant, it is necessary to strip it down to healthy tissue. Then disinfect with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 10 grams per 1 liter of water. After processing, it is necessary to lubricate the place with a garden broth.
Experts note that diseases and pests on an apricot appear when the plant lacks any mineral. For example, when gum lesions appear, we can safely say that the tree is lacking calcium. But in some cases, on the contrary, this is how an excess of a substance in the soil manifests itself. Therefore, before starting treatment, find the true cause.
Starting a plant on your own site, you need to know what diseases of the apricot are and what is their treatment. It is necessary to carry out regular inspection for the purpose of timely diagnosis.
Photos of apricots
Another fairly common disease is clasterosporium disease. It is capable of adversely affecting almost all parts of the plant: leaves, buds, branches, and fruits. Thus, the disease contributes to a decrease in yield. If the tree is not healed in time, it may die.
You can see the first manifestations of the disease in late spring - early summer. First, small brown spots appear on the leaves, which further grow. If the disease is not stopped, then the tissue inside the spot is converted into a hole.
The causative agent of this disease is a fungus on the apricot. It is dangerous in that it is able to overwinter inside the tree, and then, with the appearance of heat, it begins to actively multiply, affecting healthy shoots and leaves.
Photo of apricot clotterosporium
Apricot moniliosis is also called fruit rot. The disease usually affects branches, fruits, shoots and foliage with buds. In this case, the disease is also caused by a fungus that is not afraid of cold weather and severe frosts. In the spring, it becomes more active and begins to develop rapidly. The spores are distributed throughout the plant and infect it. You can notice the mushrooms on the apricot when the flowers turn brown and dry out. Then the pathogen moves to young shoots and foliage, affecting them.
At the same time, dried parts do not fall off the tree. When wet weather is established, the maturation of spores begins and the further development and spread of the disease. More and more new branches, shoots, leaves are affected.
On fruits, the manifestation of the disease is not difficult to notice. A small spot forms first. Then it grows and completely covers the surface of the apricot. From the inside, the fruit takes on a brown color. And on top of it, black spores of apricot pests are formed. It is worth noting that the fruits, in case of manifestation of moniliosis, are not massively affected. In this regard, the shriveled apricots remain hanging on the tree in anticipation of the beginning of spring, so that later the fungus will begin to develop again.
The photo shows gum flow on apricot
The above diseases have approximately the same developmental stages and affect the same parts of the plant. Often, diseases can appear together, and therefore it is advisable to treat the plant from all pathogens. Then the effectiveness of this measure will be significantly higher.
First of all, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures, that is, to maintain the garden in excellent sanitary condition... It takes a little time, but the result is excellent. Since fruits, leaves, shoots and branches are affected by pathogens, it is necessary to collect and burn them in a timely manner. Cleaning should be done especially in spring and autumn.
Quite decent results are obtained by the introduction of mineral, organic, limestone fertilizers. Plants, receiving such nourishment, enhance their growth and become stronger. Due to this, the reaction of the cell sap of the plant changes and the pests do not feel so comfortable, and therefore cannot reproduce.
Video about the features of apricot
In addition, it is necessary to cut off diseased and dried branches in a timely manner, as well as uproot trees. It is better to do this in spring, in this way you can get rid of plant areas affected by frost and bark beetles.
Remember - trees always need your care and help. Proper care and timely diagnosis of the disease contributes to effective treatment and prevention of relapse.
Apricot is one of the most delicate stone fruit trees. Even mild frosts are detrimental to its blossoming buds, as a result of which gardeners often lose the entire crop. But not always the absence of fruits is a consequence of natural phenomena. Sometimes the reason is that the tree has simply not reached the required age. From this article you will find out in which year the apricot bears fruit, depending on the planting method.
As a rootstock for an apricot, it is not necessary to use only wild game (pole), you can take other crops as well: blackthorn, plum. Fruits on the grafted branches will appear in 2-3 years.
Most often, apricot with this method of planting begins to bloom and give an ovary for 3-5 years. In order not to postpone this moment, when planting, it is very important not to lower the root collar of the seedling very deeply and choose the right place (with protection from the wind from the north and the absence of stagnant water). Each apricot variety begins bearing fruit at a different age:
In order for the apricot to bear fruit at the specified time, the variety should be selected according to the area where it will then grow.
An apricot, planted in summer with a bone, will delight with fruits only for 5-6 years of life. During this time, the tree should be pruned. This is necessary in order to create optimal conditions for the ripening of future fruits.
Knowing how many years the apricot begins to bear fruit, you will not needlessly worry about the lack of a crop on it.
Many gardeners dream of growing a good harvest of apricots, but this does not always work out. Poor fruiting culture is often associated with errors in care. Even a tree that once had a good harvest can become “sterile”. Why does the apricot not bear fruit, what to do when the plant does not bloom well or is a barren flower? This will be discussed further.
In which year the apricot will begin to bear fruit after planting is carried out depends on a number of factors.
First, it is the planting method. If the plant is planted with seedlings, the first fruits will appear in 3-4 years.
Note! As a rootstock for an apricot tree, not only wild wild, but also other stone fruit plants, such as cherry plum or plum, are suitable. The main thing when planting, the root part of the stock should not go too deep into the ground, it is necessary that it rises 5-6 cm above the soil level.
The second important condition for early fruiting of apricot is the correct choice of planting site. The seedling must be protected on the north side so that the rootstock is not exposed to cold winds. The groundwater at the planting site should be at a decent distance from the root system of the tree. Apricot does not like waterlogging, otherwise its roots will rot and the culture will die.
Thirdly, the time of fruiting will depend on the varietal affiliation of the apricot. In fact, there are many varieties of this plant. Therefore, when purchasing seedlings of a particular variety, one should focus on the region, climatic conditions and quality indicators of the plant.
Important! If the gardener ventured to plant an apricot with a bone, then the first shoots will appear in a year, respectively, the first crop will be able to be harvested only after 5-6 years.
In addition to the individual characteristics of each individual variety, other factors also affect the rate of first fruiting. Much depends on how quickly the seedling adapts after planting and grows. Therefore, it is very important to choose the right quality seedling, the place for planting it, and also prepare the planting hole.
Timely correct pruning also plays an important role in the speed of the onset of fruiting. Therefore, this task must be approached responsibly and competently. If experience and knowledge is not enough, it is better to invite professionals to carry out this business. This is especially true in the first years of the growth of a tree, when its formation takes place, on the correctness of which depends not only the speed of the appearance of the first harvest, but also its abundance and duration of fruiting in general.
Summer residents and gardeners shudder at the word "phytophthora" - really again ?! And - running to your plants: check, inspect, evaluate and take action. And so - every year, especially in regions where summer is short, with August rains.
Late blight ruins the harvest of tomatoes and potatoes every summer
Why is there still no means to destroy this pernicious disease of tomatoes and potatoes so as to part with it forever? It seems to me that phytophthora looks like a spy and a saboteur at the same time: it can sneak up unnoticed and strike powerfully, it has a good ability to hunt and hide.
Late blight is a fungal disease caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Weight. Phytopathologists, studying the pathogen, reveal an extraordinary ability to survive. For example, he lives in plants and plants, does not die in water.
The causative agent of phytophthora lives in plants and plants, does not die in water
It has mycelium, like any fungus, it spreads (grows) in the cells and intercellular fluid of the plant. The fungus has an extraordinary organ - zoosporangium, in which zoospores are formed - this is the stage of the life cycle. From the zoospores that begin to divide, a new mycelium grows - this is asexual reproduction. However, phytophthora also has the possibility of sexual reproduction. In this case, oospores appear, they are at rest, unlike zoospores, which are also called vagrants. Zoospores infect plants and cause disease. Oospores also cause disease if germinated.
The main wintering place is tubers that are affected by the pathogen. He "sleeps" peacefully while the tubers are stored. It is worth putting them on germination, as the mycelium grows into new potato sprouts. And there it is already transmitted from one plant to another according to a scheme developed over millennia. This is how the potato bushes become infected, and only two weeks after the potato disease, the disease affects the tomatoes.
It is believed that the infection can also be stored in the soil if diseased plants are left or part of the crop, if oospores are preserved. Then both tomato and potato bushes will be affected at the same time.
However, it happens that tomatoes start to hurt earlier. This can happen if infected soil (with plant debris) from greenhouses gets into open ground with seedlings.
To live, every living organism must feed. The causative agent of late blight is no exception. He needs plants for this important purpose. The consequence of this feeding is a change in respiration, a change in mineral nutrition, absorption of water, that is, the plant is weakened and aging begins. Early aging, not aging aging. Still not to age, if chlorophyll in the leaves becomes less, if photosynthesis is weakened, if nutrients do not accumulate.
The disease attacks
Therefore, seemingly saved plants cannot give a full-fledged harvest. Seeds from such plants cannot be taken, they can be contaminated. Potato tubers cannot be taken for seeds either.
It is usually said that there are weather factors that help the disease progress. This is dew and fog, when the smallest droplets of water settle on the leaves of the plant, and the humidity is high. Even from +15 ° C ... +22 ° C heat. The most unfavorable weather parameters for plants, but the most favorable for late blight.
It would seem that feeding should help the plants withstand the onslaught of the aggressor. However, the application of fertilizers containing nitrogen, on the contrary, worsens their condition. Plants suffer severely and may die.
Phytophthora has races. They are aggressive towards plants and fight with each other. The races have a specialization: tomato races (there are two of them) and potato races parasitize on tomatoes.
In vegetable gardens, potato and tomato beds are always located side by side, because the plots are small, and there is no way to distinguish territorially potato fields from tomato fields, as is done in large farms. That is, there is no spatial isolation of plantings of different crops. If the summer resident somehow divides his beds, then there is no guarantee that the neighbor will not attach his plants under the barrel. Summer residents do not have 500 meters at their disposal.
It turns out a kind of compote from races during rains and high humidity. Then an epidemic begins, which has its own name for plants - epiphytotia. This is a massive development of the disease in a certain area. Different races can be dominant or basic, sometimes one race supplants another.
It is important that it is difficult for plants to survive in the fight against various aggressors. There are tomato varieties that are more resistant to late blight, there are less resistant ones. During mass morbidity, even plants of very resistant varieties can be damaged. First, the more susceptible are affected, and then the pathogens can move to more resistant ones.
Some of the fruits managed to ripen before the invasion of phytophthora
If only resistant varieties are grown, then the aggressiveness of the pathogen will decrease. Races do not always appear: in times that can be called a crisis for phytophthora, there are only one tomato race and several potato ones. It is hoped that breeders will develop varieties that will not care about late blight, because work is underway to select for resistance against races. But this is a matter of the distant future.
They give off the harvest earlier than the time of attack of phytophthora comes. There are varieties with some resistance, for example White filling, Dubrava - in calm years they may not suffer from phytophthora, but during epiphytoties they become infected.
Summer cottages are small, therefore crop rotation is practically meaningless.Last year, I grew tomatoes on that garden bed, and this year, on the next one, it’s the same as growing in the same place.
Phytophthora destroyed the fruits collected for ripening
Our weather is unpredictable, we cannot understand it. We cannot predict what will fly from the sky at our specific location, and how long it will fly. Therefore, the main strategy is prevention. If the weather is such that it is possible to foresee the attack of phytophthora, then the processing of plants should be carried out ahead of time, without waiting for the first spots on the leaves. You need to start with systemic contact drugs, in this case, fungicides will be good. Contact fungicides will be ineffective because they are washed off by rains.
In the struggle for the harvest, summer residents try various drugs, including medical ones. It is unlikely that agronomists will advise them, but after all, summer residents and gardeners are allowed everything on their site, which is not prohibited by law. Therefore, we try as a preventive measure any acceptable means: serum, bacterial preparations ...
Our regular author Tatyana (Tula region) talks about her method of preventing phytophthora using a solution based on fermented milk products.
The list of effective remedies can be continued in the comments, based on your experience in combating late blight.
Apricots (Primus armeniaca L.) - a genus of fruit trees and shrubs of the Rosaceae family of the plum subfamily - came from China, although Armenia was considered their homeland for a very long time (which was reflected in the botanical name), from where Alexander the Great allegedly brought them to Europe. Nowadays, apricot trees grow in all areas with warm climates. As a thermophilic fruit plant, they thrive in grape-friendly areas.
All over the world (in North India, Iran, China, North and South Africa, South Europe, North America and Australia, in Central Asia and Transcaucasia, in the southern territories and regions of Russia and Ukraine), mainly common apricot (Primus vtil-gans) is cultivated ...
Growth and development. Common apricot varieties cultivated in Ukraine belong to the Iranian-Caucasian, European and Central Asian groups. The varieties of the European group prevail, including the northern subgroup - zherdel. In small quantities in the gardens there are also varieties of black apricot (purple), which is a hybrid of common apricot with cherry plum.
The sizes of trees vary considerably. In most varieties, they reach 8-10 m in height, and the diameter of the trunk is 30-40 cm.However, in most regions of Ukraine, trees are not durable and rarely exceed 6-7 m in height, and 7-8 m in crown diameter.
Shoot growth activity depends on age: the most active growth is in young plants. A very important feature of apricot is the ability of strong growth shoots to branch out, forming premature lateral shoots.
During the fruiting period, shoots of various types are noted In addition to the continuation shoot and overgrowing branches at the base of skeletal branches and on the trunk, often, especially with freezing and mechanical damage, fatty shoots, or tops are formed.
Apricot does not produce pristamb and root shoots. For this reason, wild-type seedlings are often used as rootstocks for all cultivars of plums. Growth and flower buds are formed on the annual shoots of the apricot. The kidneys are often closed
They get along in groups of 2-3 in the leaf axil, of which only the central one is growth. From the lateral growth buds, the next year, bouquet twigs and spurs develop. Their lifespan is up to 7-8 years, but they are most productive up to 4-5 years. Overgrowing branches most often have a growth bud at the end, which ensures the growth of the branch next year. Twigs without growth buds die off after fruiting, often turning into thorns.
For regular and sufficiently abundant fruiting of trees, it is necessary that fruit wood is formed in sufficient volume annually. In connection with the weakening of growth processes in apricot trees, pruning, which activates the growth of shoots, is of particular importance.
The life cycle of an apricot is somewhat slower than that of other stone fruits. Although 2-3-year-old plants can already bloom, a marketable crop, as a rule, occurs only in the 5-6th year. Trees under favorable conditions can live up to 40-50 years. However, in the garden, they often die off early due to damage from disease and frost. Usually apricot orchards on seed stock are quite productive up to 18-20 years, the maximum yield of trees is observed in the period from 8 to 15-18 years.
The diameter of the apricot root system is often much larger than the crown diameter. The roots can penetrate to a depth of 2 m or more, but their bulk is concentrated at a depth of 40 cm.
A characteristic feature of apricot is its high early maturity and kidney awakening. Under favorable conditions of humidification, they are characterized by a prolonged undulating growth of shoots, branching due to the appearance of premature shoots. In favorable years, their growth continues until the end of July, while three waves of growth can be observed. In dry years, shoot growth ends at the beginning of June. Shoots ripen well and are hardened in a timely manner before wintering.
Apricot blooms before the leaves open. Cultivars vary in flowering time, but most bloom at the same time.
Fruiting. The overwhelming majority of apricot varieties are self-fertile. The exception is the varieties of Transcaucasian and Central Asian origin Shalakh, Arzami and some new varieties that have descended from them, which are self-infertile.
In Ukraine, the fruits ripen in mid-June - July, and only some forms - in August. By the timing of ripening, they are divided into superearly, early, middle and late.
Ultra-early varieties are of particular interest to both gardeners and the market. They open the apricot season from mid-June. As a rule, they are inferior in size to varieties of a later ripening period. The superearly varieties include domestic breeding: Melitopolsky 12908 (but very small), Melitopol early and introduced Svetlogradsky early, Perud, Aldridge, Leskora, Kech Pshaar.
The assortment is based on mid-season varieties. Of the promising, early ripening varieties are of domestic selection Priusadebny, Bratsky. Of the introduced ones, Er-Lee Red Orange, Har Line, Earley Blush, Velikopavlovsky (VP Le 12/2), Legolda, Lejuna deserve attention.
There are few good late varieties among Ukrainian ones. I will name the Late Melitopol and Osinny Svitanok. And although the second one stands out for its special large-fruited and marketable fruits (it has not yet been zoned), it has nothing to do with autumn, because even with a cold and rainy summer in Mirgorod, it fully ripened until August 16, earlier than the mid-late Crimean Amur. Crimean Cupid is good for everyone, but the winter hardiness of wood is very low. After winters 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. he suffered from gum disease, and is now recovering with new shoots above the graft. The domestic variety Zaporozhets does not fail, but the marketability of its fruits this summer was spoiled by ugly "warts".
In the foothills of the Caucasus, an apricot seedling "Oktyabrskiy" was discovered, which attracted attention due to its extremely late ripening period (late September - early October). Unfortunately, he did not stand out in anything else and, probably, will be of more interest for breeding ro-. bots. Of the introduced varieties, Goldrich, NJA-19, Perla, Leala, Ledana, Legolda, Lejuna, Xap Grand, Har Line, Harcot, Xap O'gem have shown themselves well, which have not yet been sufficiently studied in the regions of Ukraine and so far can be recommended only for growing in personal plots.
Winter hardiness. This is the main characteristic limiting the cultivation of apricot in all regions. In Ukraine, it bears fruit less regularly than other stone fruit crops, which is due to its biological characteristics, which cause unstable winter hardiness. According to statistics, we can get three full-fledged crops in ten years. This should be especially taken into account by farmers planning to establish industrial gardens.
Apricot has the shortest period of deep winter dormancy among all fruit crops and the intensive development of flower buds after coming out of a state of deep dormancy. Flower buds come out of deep dormancy especially early. This happens in late February and early March. But unlike other stone fruits, which also finish dormancy early (cherry plum, peach), apricot quickly loses its hardening, and it requires a little heat to start growth processes.
With the onset of growth processes, flower buds quickly lose their resistance to frost. Therefore, their death from recurrent frosts at the end of winter is more common than in other stone fruit plants (except for almonds). In terms of frost resistance during the period of winter dormancy, trees of many varieties of apricot are not inferior to plums, they are superior to peaches. But the least winter-hardy organs of the tree are flower buds.
Of all the fruit, apricots are most susceptible to freezing in the south. In this regard, areas of reliable fruiting are very limited. This is, perhaps, only the Melitopol region, where there are no sharp temperature fluctuations in winter. At rest, trees can withstand frosts up to 25-27 degrees, but after the end of dormancy, their winter hardiness drops sharply. An especially sharp decrease in frost resistance occurs after warming in January - February.
The tissues of the skeleton and annual shoots can withstand temperatures as low as 30 degrees. But at the end of winter, after the tissues of the trunk and branches come out of dormancy, the trees freeze out already at 25 degrees, and sometimes even with weaker frosts. Early autumn frosts also sometimes cause great damage.
Therefore, in the winter of 2005-2006. most of the apricots were left without / giving birth due to frosts up to 27 degrees l lower. And in 2006-2007, due to an excessively warm winter (until February), apricots began to come out of dormancy, but the subsequent 20-degree frosts were enough to destroy the awakened flower buds
In the conditions of the southern regions, the main factor determining the winter hardiness of apricot is not frost resistance at rest, but the duration of the dormant state.
More winter-hardy varieties with a longer period of winter dormancy and slow spring development after leaving it. Therefore, breeding work on the creation of new varieties of apricot is aimed not so much at increasing the winter hardiness of this crop, as at finding ways to increase the phase of deep winter dormancy.
When performing selective selection of seedlings, one of the signs of frost resistance of the variety is the presence of a dark carmine color of young shoots. If they are light green, then, most likely, the variety will be frost-resistant. The same feature persists in varietal seedlings.
The fruits of semi-cultivated apricot seedlings, called poles, are widespread. They are smaller in size than cultivated varieties, less saccharine and have a denser flesh. But on the other hand, they bear fruit abundantly every year and do not suffer as much from spring frosts as cultivated varieties.
Later flowering forms, found among Asian varieties and local poles, are characterized by greater winter hardiness.
According to the winter hardiness of the skeletal part of the tree, local varieties of poles and varieties of black, or purple, apricot are distinguished, which everywhere show high winter hardiness. This species, which originated from the hybridization of apricot with cherry plum, inherited from the latter the slow pace of spring development, and as a result, the increased winter hardiness of flower buds at the end of winter.
In the winters of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. in the Poltava region, all fruit formations on cultivated apricots were frozen, and only wild forms of poles pleased with their modest, unimpressive fruits. They are used mainly for making jams, compotes and for drying.
After the past, unfavorable for apricots winters 2005-2007. The poles, selected by an amateur gardener from Kharkov Leonid Semyonovich Shugin, who gave them the names of all Ukrainian hetmans, bore fruit well.
Honored Agronomist of Ukraine L.I. Taranenko.
How to make apricots bear fruit more often? In ancient times, such a method was proposed by the most prominent Russian fruit grower, Professor P.G. Shitt. The essence of the method: in the middle of summer, after harvesting, a slight rejuvenation of the apricot is carried out (except for very late varieties) - from 1/5 to 1/3 of the crown is removed, depending on the state of the tree. Of all the breeds, only the apricot is capable of giving a one-year growth up to 50-60 cm long with the laying of more frost-resistant flower buds until autumn (if there is a severe drought, then it is better, of course, a couple of times). They will bloom the next year 4-5 days later, which can save the ovary from freezing
The choice of apricot varieties for Lugansk, Kharkov and the north of Sumy regions, which are the coldest in Ukraine, is especially problematic. In the winter of 2005-2006, frosts of up to 40-43 degrees were observed in the first two regions, which was lower than in the Kursk and Oryol regions of Russia.
Gardeners in these areas should remember that their attempts to grow the largest and most delicious southern varieties of apricots on their backyard will be short-lived. Therefore, it is more (it is advisable to select varieties of at least Artyomovskaya, Rossoshanskaya OSS or selected forms of poles. Amateur testers can experiment with Canadian varieties (Canadian Ukrainian, Canadian Ukrainian-2, Sundrop, Tomcot, Xap Grand, Har Line, Har O'gem) or Svetlogradsky early from Stavropol, where the range of annual temperatures is sometimes recorded from 40 to minus 40 degrees.
My recommendations are not specific, because, living in the Poltava region, I cannot declare with complete confidence about the successful cultivation of the above varieties in the Kharkiv and Lugansk regions. And it would be interesting to read on the pages of the newspaper "Nasha Dacha" about the results of such experiments. This would undoubtedly be of great help to gardeners in these areas when choosing varieties.
According to their purpose, apricots are subdivided into table, canned and dry-fruit (that is, intended for drying) varieties Whole fruits, dried with a stone, are called apricots, and without it - kaisa, they contain up to 40% sugar and 15-20% moisture. Fruits are dried. and halves without pits, these are dried apricots
The best table varieties are used mainly fresh They are also good for making various sauces and for freezing
The most delicious compotes and preserves are made from the best canned varieties.
Very juicy and sweet pulp of apricot fruits contains up to 12% sugars (or even up to 28%, especially in Central Asian varieties), up to 2.5% organic acids (malic, citric, succinic) up to 1.27% pectin substances, many flavonoids (quercetin, isoquercitrin and especially rutin - up to 450 mg / 100 g, which has an effect similar to that of vitamin P), aromatic substances, inulin, phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic acids), mineral salts and trace elements (potassium, phosphorus, calcium , nickel, titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, boron, strontium, a lot of iron and silver), the amount of which varies depending on the apricot variety, place of growth, soil composition, natural and climatic conditions, etc. "Fruits of the sun" are rich in vitamins B1, B2, B15, PP and carotene, the amount of which determines the color of the fruit (the more carotene -
from 0.2 to 10 mg / 100 g, the more intense it is) But they have quite a bit of vitamin C - about 5 mg / 100 g.Every person should consume 2.5 kg of apricots every year
Seeds (seeds) of apricots contain up to 58% fatty non-drying oil (in composition and properties close to almond and peach), up to 8.5% amygdalin, up to 0.011% poisonous hydrocyanic acid, inulin, starch, carotene, organic acids, amino acids, enzyme emulsin, potassium salts, arginine, tyrosine, a lot of vitamin Bj g, as well as vitamins PP and C Remember: bitter apricot seeds are very dangerous to eat in large quantities, since amygdalin, when decomposed in the digestive tract, gives hydrocyanic acid. Fatty sweet kernels can be eaten all year round as delicious nuts They are added to apricot jam, baked goods instead of walnuts
Apricots spoil very quickly. At room temperature, they last up to 3-5 days. You can save them for 2-3 weeks only if they are still hard removed and kept in a cold place or in the refrigerator at a temperature of about 0 degrees.
The apricots are dried as follows: first, they are sorted and calibrated by size into large (with a diameter of at least 35 mm) and small, immersed in a weak solution of baking soda (to preserve color), then blanch in water at a temperature of 90-92 degrees (large - 3- 4 minutes, small - 2 minutes) and finally spread on sieves of 12 kg per 1 sq. m and dried to the final moisture content, which should not exceed 18%. But this requires varieties with a high sugar content.
If there are none, then it is better to slightly change the technology. After the soda solution, the fruits must be placed for a couple of hours in a saturated cold solution of sugar syrup, the concentration of which depends on the taste of each individually. Then, letting the sugar syrup drain on a sieve, the fruits are dried to the desired moisture content.
But the classic way of drying high-sugar varieties is
drying using fumigation of fruits with sulfur vapors in closed rooms. Imported products on the shelves of markets and food supermarkets, which delight us with quality, have undergone just such processing. With this method of processing, the concentration of residual sulfur in the processed fruit is so low that it does not pose a threat even to infants. The content of vitamins in such fruits is 5-7 times higher than in those dried in the sun. They have a marketable appearance, and during storage they never get a mole. But this technology is more labor intensive.
And the value of the variety also depends on the degree of sugar content. The more sugar, the more expensive the product.
Apricots are recommended for asthma, they help the body fight various infections. Only 100 g of apricots have the same effect on the hematopoiesis process as 250 g of fresh liver. Many have experienced the miraculous effect of apricots: bowel function normalizes, edema disappears. Scientists who have studied the living conditions of some tribes, for example the Hunza tribe in Pakistan, believe that the longevity of their representatives is explained by the traditional abundant consumption of apricots. The high content of carotene has a good effect on the hygienic condition of the skin of the face of all who regularly consume apricots.
Sweet kernels of apricot seeds help with bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis (6-12 g per day), as well as with the usual constipation and hemorrhoids (in the latter case, it is recommended to finely grind the seeds and lubricate the inflamed areas with them). When using seeds in small doses of amygdalin in the body
decomposes gradually and has a calming effect on the cough center.When a large number of bitter stone nuclei are consumed, the body becomes poisoned (within a period of 0.5 to 5 hours)
High antitumor activity of amygdalin was also revealed.In medical practice, apricot gum is also used as an emulsifier - hardened drips from cracks in the bark of a tree (commonly called glue) By the way, its abundance on the trunks and branches indicates the slow death of the tree. Apricot oil is used as a solvent in the preparation of solutions for injections, liquid ointments, especially cosmetic ones.
Apricot grows best on lighted, well-aerated and drained slopes with light (sandy loam, loamy and sandy), as well as stony soils, heavy clay and saline soils are unsuitable for apricot culture. It should also be borne in mind that stagnant groundwater, with its close occurrence (less than 2 m for seed stocks), has a harmful effect on the root system of apricot trees.
In arid regions, in addition to autumn and spring water-charging irrigations, two to six vegetation irrigations are carried out; the irrigation rate for young gardens is 300-400 cubic meters. m / ha, fruiting - 500-700 cubic meters. m / ha. To recalculate this amount of water per one hundred square meters, it is enough to discard all zeros. Every 3-4 years in apricot orchards, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil: 50-80 kg of phosphorus, 10-15 kg of potassium, 30-50 kg of nitrogen per hectare.
In industrial culture, apricot is propagated by grafting on wild apricot and cherry plum, less often by seeds. Trees are planted at a distance of 6-8 m in a row with a row spacing of 8 m.
In the last 15-20 years, gardens planted on low-growing vegetative rootstocks Druzhba, VSV-1, VVA-1, Pumiselekt and others have become more and more popular, allowing you to get a marketable crop much earlier (2 years) and with a greater return per unit area. By the way, recently there has been a stir around a universal dwarf rootstock for all large-seed crops - Pumiselekt. But advertisers do not specify what the productive period of the trees on this rootstock is. And according to the professor of Uzhgorod University V.A. Hare, a specialist in large-seed crops, he is only 5-7 years old. Considering the early maturity of trees on this rootstock, this is probably a lot, since the effective productive period on the most widespread strong-growing seed rootstock is poles - up to 15 years.
The first harvests of apricots on a medium-sized rootstock Druzhba showed that, having many advantages, it leads to a decrease in the size of the fruits.For example, the early Svetlogradsky apricot ripened on the Druzhba rootstock and the seedling at the same time, but the weight of the largest fruits on Friendship was 30 g, 50 g. Both trees were bearing fruit for the first time. Lilia Ivanovna Taranenko, Honored Agronomist of Ukraine, has repeatedly mentioned a decrease in the size of fruits on medium-sized and dwarf rootstocks. It is possible that other dwarf
rootstocks will have a similar effect on fruit size. This must be taken into account by those gardeners who grow products primarily for the market.
The best shape of the crown of an apricot tree is an improved vase-shaped or tiered with a stem height of 50-80 cm. On young, vigorous trees, shoots that thicken the crown are removed. Very long and thin hanging lateral annual growths are shortened by 1-2 thirds of their length. In adult fruiting trees, young growth is shortened annually and thickened branches are thinned out.
Apricot begins fruiting on seed stock relatively early - 3-5 years after planting in the garden. In areas with a favorable climate, it bears fruit annually, yielding a yield of 8-12 tons per hectare or more.
A closely related crop to the plum, apricot is generally cultivated in much the same way as other plums. It is damaged by weevils, goldweeds, gray rot, clotterosporia and bacterial cancer.
Last winter 2007-2008 in the Poltava region was favorable for the wintering of this culture, but the subsequent spring and summer were characterized by an excessive abundance of rains, which ultimately again led to large losses in the apricot harvest, most of which was affected by monilia, fruit rot, the fruits cracked, not yet ripe.
Against the general background of the variety of varieties, the varieties Bercheron (Le-2) and Lejuna Last showed particular resistance to monilia, distinguished not only by the cleanest leaf with rampant monilia, but also by the highest frost resistance of fruit buds of all varieties of Czech breeding.
In conclusion, I would like to note that we have in our collection more than 60 varieties of apricots of domestic and foreign selection. Slightly less than half have not yet been observed in fruiting. Therefore, a comparative analysis was carried out only for those varieties that were already bearing fruit. Many varieties have yet to amaze or disappoint us with their fruits, resistance (or lack thereof) to adverse climatic conditions and diseases.
Judging by the reviews of many Ukrainian gardeners, the following pattern is emerging. In the total mass of apricot varieties, in terms of the sum of positive characteristics, introduced varieties of Canadian, Czech and American selection win. As for their "dubious" frost resistance, it has not been sufficiently studied in the regions of Ukraine and needs urgent research for the benefit of the common cause, and not to raise the prestige of "their" varieties.
In recent years, I was faced with the fact that some publications insistently ask to advertise domestic varieties more, and in Lugansk they even stated that “from above” it is allowed to write only about domestic varieties. You can judge for yourself how one-sided information is received by subscribers of such publications. And it becomes very disappointing that journalists are actually helping to hide the lag in breeding work, giving the opportunity to live in peace to those on whom the level of breeding progress in the state depends.
More and more often I receive letters stating that if winters are harsh, then there is no harvest either on “ours” or on “foreign” promising varieties. But in winters favorable for apricot, "foreigners" undoubtedly win. But after all, if the variety is successful, many do not care about its origin.
They are afraid, oh, how afraid many, especially beginners, gardeners to prune cherries. Is it necessary, they ask, to cut it off at all? Look, how it blooms. No wonder the poet admired: "Cherry orchards stand like drenched milk ..."
So why crop? There are enough flowers for a bountiful harvest. And if, with such a flowering, little or no fruit is formed at all, this is explained by the fact that the cherry-de empty flower has a lot. No, the point here is different.
Cherry buds are simple, that is, either flowering, and only flowers are formed of them, or vegetative, which will give leaves and shoots. Before the cherry blossoms begin to bloom. Moreover, they are located on annual branches located on the periphery of the crown. So the illusion of a solid shock of flowers is created.
They do not hide among the leaves, as, for example, in the apple tree. Everything is in sight. But most of these flowers will fall off. In winter and spring, even with relatively mild frosts, cherry flower buds can freeze a lot, first of all, their pistil, stamens, ovary. Such a flower will bloom in the spring, and everything seems to be in order. And look inside - everything is black there, only the petals are. So much for the wasteland.
And some of the flowers remain non-pollinated due to the “non-flying” weather for pollinating insects. True, among the varieties of cherries there are also self-fertile ones that do not need insects - carriers of pollen, but in bad weather they do not set fruits either, since pollen tubes grow slowly and do not have time to reach the ovule and fertilize it in a short period of their life. And it turns out that in unfavorable years, despite the strong flowering, the harvest is scanty.
Experienced gardeners often find that pruning cherries greatly weakens the trees, causing them to gum. And this is true, but only true in one case, when the tree is weakened. And if the tree is healthy, not weakened by crop overload in the years of abundant fruiting, not frozen, if the branch growth is strong enough, pruning is not terrible. It will not cause gum flow.
Let's turn to the biology of a tree and see if pruning is necessary according to it. And if necessary, then we will determine what it should be, so that the tree will not be harmful, and the person will benefit.
According to the nature of growth and fruiting, all varieties of cherries are conventionally divided into tree-like and bush-like. Not to be confused with the appearance, as both can be grown both in the form of a bush and in the form of a tree. The division is arbitrary, because under certain conditions tree cherries can bear fruit as bushy ones and vice versa.
In tree cherries, the predominant part of the fruit is located on special fruit branches - bouquet. A bouquet twig can live and bear fruit for several years. On it, a short growth is formed from the apical buds. With good care and proper pruning, the growths of tree cherries are quite long - 40-50 cm. Some of the buds on them are flowering. They will produce flowers and fruits next year. The other part is vegetative. From these buds, either bouquet branches or long growths are formed. There is no strong exposure of the branches at this time. But when the growths weaken, when they are less than 20 cm, flower buds are formed on them, there are practically no vegetative buds, after fruiting the branches become bare.
In bushy cherry varieties, fruiting is observed only on annual branches. The flower buds are lateral. Moreover, if the growth is short - about 20-25 cm - all lateral buds are flowering, and the vegetative one is only apical. On very strong growths - more than 50 cm - on the contrary: all or almost all of the buds are vegetative, from which new branches are formed. Both those and other kidneys have increments of 25-50 cm. As a result, with short growths after fruiting, the branches become bare. Only a scar remains at the place of attachment of the fetus. So it turns out: trees of tree varieties have long, very long, almost completely bare thin branches, but only on the terminal short growth can there be fruits. The shorter the growth, the less buds it has and the less fruit it has. And in the spring, during flowering, there are trees "doused with milk." But, as they say, appearances can be deceiving. The tree weakens, grows worse, bears fruit more sparingly. It freezes more often, and gum lesions appear on it.
To prevent this from happening, it is necessary from the very beginning “not to let the tree run its course”, but to regulate the ratio of growth and fruiting for our own purposes. For both tree-like and bushy varieties, the most desirable gains are of average strength - 30-50 cm. They will ensure the harvest of the current year and give reason to hope for the harvest next year.
So how do you prune your cherries? Let's trace it from the very beginning.
There is a sapling. The more branches it has, the better: out of a large number, you can always choose 5-6 as the main ones. Those that grow on a trunk, the height of which should be 25-40 cm, and those that are located higher, but, in your opinion, are superfluous, cut into a ring. Just make cuts more carefully - cherries do not react well to hemp. In most cases, they dry out, the bark around them dies off. And frost will add damage. So much for the gum.
Regardless of when you planted the tree, do your first post-plant pruning in early spring, before the buds swell. If for some reason you are late with pruning and the buds are already starting to grow, postpone this event until next spring. Otherwise, the shortened branch may dry out to the base. And in general, shorten the branches of the cherry only in case of extreme need. It doesn't matter if the subordination of the branches is not perfect.
At a young age, cherry buds awaken almost along the entire length of the branch, and most of them give rise to shoots. Therefore, it is necessary to timely prevent the possibility of early thickening of the crown. Otherwise, later you will have to resort to strong pruning, which is undesirable. Be sure to cut out all branches that are heading into the crown and have no development prospects.Cut into the ring. Gradually add new ones to the previously selected main branches so that by the end of formation, when the height of the tree becomes 2-2.5 m, bush varieties have them up to 15, tree varieties - about 10. Place them evenly along the trunk. Do not restrict lateral ramifications if they have room for this. If they grow not in their sector, cut them for translation, direct them where they should, to the periphery of the crown. When limiting growth in height, pruning, transferring to a successfully (to the periphery) oriented branch.
When the crown is formed and the tree is fruitful, make sure that the annual growth does not weaken too much. When they are within 25-30 cm, you can limit yourself to crown thinning. However, do not overdo it. Cherries can be tolerated with some thickening. But only with a few. If it is necessary to change the direction of growth of any branch, cut it off for translation to a branch that is well located in space.
Weakening annual growth signals that the tree needs rejuvenating pruning. Do not delay with the beginning of this work, because in cherries, the bare branches with weak growths progress quickly and it becomes more and more difficult to carry out anti-aging pruning. Already with a growth length of 20 cm, it is necessary to start light rejuvenation. Prune such branches to the first strong branch. If the branch to be rejuvenated is located at the bottom of the crown, trim it to an upward branch.
With short gains, rejuvenation should be stronger. Start pruning crowns with weakened growths with a thorough thinning. First of all, remove, of course, dry, broken, frail ones without branching and growth. For strong branches that have been left, trim off the bare, non-branching part to the first strong branch. If, for some reason, for some reason, you have already very much neglected the crown, then in one year, apparently, you cannot cope with pruning. And you don't need to. And then, in fact, you will cut off the already weakened trees and cause a general weakening, gum flow will appear, the wounds will begin to overgrow poorly, frost resistance will decrease, root growth will appear.
After rejuvenating pruning, as a rule, strong spinning tops appear. By subsequent pruning of weakened branches onto these tops and forming new young branches from them with sufficiently strong annual growth, you can restore the tree's ability to bear fruit abundantly every year. We just want to warn you: if an old neglected tree also has a sick damaged conductor, bark hurts in the forks of branches and on a trunk, then rejuvenating pruning need not be done - it will not help. It is better to replace such a tree with another. Cherry is an early ripening breed, and while you waste time on the revival of a obviously unpromising plant, the young would have time to enter fruiting and would more than compensate for the loss of the crop.
This is how bushy cherry varieties are cut. Pruning of tree cherries is similar to that described, only here it is permissible to shorten annual branches if they are strong enough. This promotes branching and stimulates the formation of bouquet branches from the lower buds of the cut branches. As with bush cherry varieties, rejuvenating pruning is done in an area that has seen good growth in the past. For tree cherries, thinning is also very useful in order to lighten the crown.
As for pruning plums, you should remember: this plant is distinguished by a high rate of growth and development. Depending on the early maturity of the variety, it begins to bear fruit in the third or fifth year after planting in a permanent place. The flower buds of the plum are also simple. They are placed singly or in groups of 2-3 in the axils of annual growth leaves. When placed in groups, one of the buds is usually full-grown, and 1-2 are flowering.
On a strong growth, single growth buds are located in the upper part, single flowering buds in the lower part, and in the middle - in groups of both flowering and growth buds. Next year, where there were group buds, bouquet branches and spurs will appear, and where there were single ones - growth ones, depending on the tree's ability to grow, short or long branches are formed. On short growths, mainly single flower buds will be laid, and only occasionally group or single growth buds will come across. Therefore, in the plum, as in the cherry, with the weakening of growth, the bare branches progresses. Exposure is also associated with the fragility of bouquet branches: after 3-4 years of fruiting, they usually dry out. New ones are not formed in this place. They can only appear on strong growth.
By the nature of fruiting, two groups of plum varieties are distinguished, fruiting mainly on annual growths and on wood at the age of two years.
In the varieties of the first group, group buds predominate on long annual increments. Together with the weakening of the annual growth of group buds, it becomes less and less, the branches become bare more and more quickly, the ability to bear fruit in the tree drops sharply. The crop is located mainly on the periphery of the crown. To maintain the ability to produce crops, it is necessary to constantly maintain the "ability" of the plant to form annual strong sprouts.
In varieties of the second group, lateral buds on annual branches are often single vegetative. Spurs and short twigs develop from them, on which fruiting will be concentrated. Spurs are more durable than bouquet twigs, and therefore the branches of trees in this group are not very bare.
Prune the plum trees as little as possible immediately after planting. Only remove branches that create strong thickening, and do not have room to grow. Those branches that are too ahead of others in development, shorten them with a transfer to a side branch. Shorten very long (more than 60 cm) branches, otherwise weak spurs will grow from the buds of their lower part, on which fruits are hardly formed.
Prune fruit trees to avoid weakening their growth. For increments of about 40 cm, limit yourself to thinning. When the gains become shorter each year, start rejuvenating. The order and technique are the same as for cherries.
In all cases of pruning stone fruit shoots that appear near the stem, remove to the base, without leaving hemp.
R. Kudryavets, professor
Among the most likely reasons for the absence or weak fruiting of apricots are:
Let's consider the ways of eliminating these problems one by one.
Currently, varieties of apricots have been developed for cultivation both in the northern regions and in the southern ones. Therefore, the non-zoned apricot variety should be replaced with a more suitable for the climate.
The Tsarsky apricot variety begins to ripen only in August, therefore, in regions where the summer is short, it is better not to grow it.
If the reason for the lack of fruiting is waterlogged soil, with high acidity or a close location of groundwater, it is necessary to improve the quality of the soil. To do this, carry out:
With nearby groundwater, the apricot is planted on a mound 0.5-0.8 m high
Apricot belongs to drought-resistant crops, therefore it tolerates excess moisture worse than its lack. With a prolonged absence of rain in the summer, the vegetative processes in apricots are not disturbed and do not affect the setting and ripening of fruits, provided that they are regularly watered and thoroughly mulched the soil under the trees. During the season, subject to moderate precipitation, four compulsory watering is carried out:
The first watering of the apricot is carried out in the spring, before the tree blooms.
With insufficient nutrition, the apricot weakens, poorly develops overgrowing branches and grows vegetative (with leaves) instead of fruit shoots. Thus, the tree tries to replenish the supply of nutrients to the detriment of the future harvest. To solve this problem, you should regularly feed the plants with organic and mineral fertilizers, giving preference to nitrogen fertilizers in the spring, and gradually replacing them with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the summer.
If the lack of fruiting is caused by damage to the flower buds by pests or the buds are damaged as a result of a fungal disease, measures should be taken to destroy the insect pests or fungal spores. For this, apricots are treated with appropriate fungicidal and insecticidal preparations. To prevent diseases, preventive spraying of trees is carried out in the spring before bud break and in the fall after leaf fall with 3% Bordeaux liquid.
For the prevention of diseases, apricots are sprayed in the spring before bud break with 3% Bordeaux liquid
For apricot flower buds in late winter and spring, the greatest danger is posed by sudden thaws in February and recurrent frosts in May. Apricot has a very short period of natural dormancy; at the end of winter, the buds are already ready for growing. Only negative air temperature inhibits this process and forces the tree to be in a state of forced dormancy. But with the onset of a thaw and an increase in air temperature above 10 ºC, the kidneys start to grow. The frosts that follow the thaw cause the death of flower buds and, in the future, the absence of fruits. During late May frosts, already opened buds and apricot flowers suffer. The solution to this problem is to maximize the period of forced rest and delay the swelling of the kidneys. For this:
The longer the dormant period of the variety, the better for its frost resistance. Long dormant varieties tend to flower later and yield annual yields. The duration of the period of deep (endogenous) dormancy in different groups of apricot varies greatly. The apricot of the Manchu-Siberian group has a short dormant period. Genotypes with a long dormant period should be sought among the varieties of the Central Asian group.
A. M. Golubev, scientist-agronomist, biochemist, Saratov
Magazine "Gardens of Russia", No. 1, January 2011
A characteristic feature of apricot is the formation of the earliest flower buds on overgrown and annual shoots of the first growth wave. It is these early buds that most often fall under the spring frosts during the flowering tree.
Often already blooming apricot suffers from frosts in May, especially in central Russia
Flower buds on the branches of the second and third growth waves bloom six to ten days later, when the frost has already passed. Due to this, they have a higher winter hardiness and are not damaged by frost. This pattern was the basis for the summer (green) pruning of apricot. It consists in the fact that at the end of May or at the beginning of June, when the first wave of shoot growth ends, the increments of this wave 30–40 cm long are shortened by half. Thanks to this pruning:
Thus, by pruning trees in summer, damage to flower buds can be avoided during return frosts in May or severe frosts in winter, that is, to increase the winter hardiness of the apricot and preserve the future harvest.
Fruit ovaries are formed by apricot on annual shoots, bouquet twigs and spurs. Flower buds, located on strong annual growths, form groups. Single buds grow on weak shoots. In trees weakened by insufficient care, diseases of trees, the formation of new shoots slows down, and then stops. At the same time, the number of overgrowing branches with flower buds decreases. At the age of 6–8 years, spurs and bouquet twigs die off on the branches. These processes lead to a decrease in the yield, and subsequently - to its complete absence. To restore shoots, pruning is used. Depending on the age of the tree, it is subdivided into formative, regulating, rejuvenating and sanitary (restoring).
For a good annual harvest, pruning apricots is carried out regularly.
At each stage of tree pruning, a specific task is solved: from crown formation to rejuvenation and restoration of productive function.
For regular sustainable fruiting of apricot, even a self-fertile variety, several trees of different varieties should be planted nearby, coinciding in terms of flowering and fruiting.
Planting several apricots with close flowering dates will help improve the fruiting of each.
When growing apricot, the principle of a balanced root system and the aerial part of the tree must be observed. Excessive development of the root system leads to the pulling of nutrients from the crown to the roots and weakens the tree. Conversely, too much vegetative mass causes a weakening of the productive function of the apricot. If the tree is overloaded with a large number of ovaries, rationing of the fruit load (removal of excess set fruits) should be carried out when the natural fall of the extra ovary after flowering ends.
Another important factor of poor fruiting is unfavorable conditions during the formation of flower buds, which begins after the growth of shoots (end of June - first half of July).Differentiation of growth and flower buds ends in the second half of October with the formation of ovule rudiments - the basis of the future harvest.
M.V. Kanshina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Sci., GNU VNII Lupina, Bryansk
Magazine "Gardens of Russia", No. 2, February 2012
Having found out the reasons causing insufficient fruiting of the apricot, we get the conclusion: it is possible to regulate this process. You just need to follow the rules for caring for fruit trees, use competent agricultural techniques, plant the appropriate varieties, and most importantly, love your garden. Apricots, as living beings, feeling cared for and cared for, will thank the gardener with a generous harvest.