← Read the previous part "Growing onions from seeds"
Exist onion varieties, which are propagated not by seeds, but annually small bulbs, 3-5 cm in diameter (samples) are taken from the crop, and then a large bulb is obtained from them. These include ancient local bows of the northern part of the Non-Chernozem zone: Vologda, Kirov, Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov and other regions. These varieties form 10-25 bulbs in a nest.
It should be noted that when grown from seeds, some varieties of Estonia and Latvia give a fairly large marketable bulb only after 3-5 years. In the first year, a rather large set is grown from the seeds of such onions, in the second year - samples and a small amount of marketable onions, and only in the 3-5th year these varieties usually give a small number of samples, and mainly a large onion. For planting, large healthy bulbs are selected, which then give 5-7 bulbs per nest.
Since these onions are multi-nested, their agricultural technology is somewhat different from growing onions from sevka... They are grown in very fertile areas. The soil is cultivated, as well as under onion-turnip, from seedlings. In autumn, up to 6-10 kg / m² of humus is introduced under vegetatively propagated onions. In the spring, the soil is filled with mineral fertilizers; during the growing season, 1-2 additional dressings are made.
Planted on a ridge 4-5 rows. Inside the row, the bulb is placed at a distance of 15-25 cm from the bulb. The distance between the bulbs during planting depends on the size of the planting material, as well as on the type of plants. Vegetatively propagated onions can have a compact or spreading leaf arrangement. A too rare arrangement of plants causes a strong development of the vegetative mass, and they form larger bulbs, but they ripen much later or do not have time to ripen at all: in addition, the land is used uneconomically.
With a strong thickening, the plants shade each other, stretch out and begin to form the crop earlier, forming small bulbs. Large bulbs that form more plants in the nest are planted less often, small ones more often. In addition, the branching ability of the bulbs should be taken into account: multi-nested varieties should be thickened less than small-nested ones. We must strive to plant the plants so that their leaves cover the soil surface.
Bulbs of various sizes are usually formed in the nest - 1-5 cm in diameter. Large bulbs of vegetatively propagated varieties, when planted, produce a larger number of bulbs in the nest than small ones, and their mass is greater, but planting such bulbs is unprofitable. For landing, it is better to use medium-sized specimens. They form large and medium-sized bulbs and some small ones in the nest. A small number of rather large ones are formed from small bulbs.
In addition, large bulbs often shoot off even with a slight violation of the storage regime or with early planting (sometimes by 70-90%). Medium-sized bulbs are best suited as planting material, as they provide the highest yield of marketable products and keep well in the winter, while small ones dry out quickly during storage and, in addition, they form a small number of large bulbs during planting. nest.
The planting time is determined in such a way that the onions get into moist soil and take root faster: in the south of the Leningrad region they are planted on May 5-10, in the northern regions on May 15-30. You should not delay planting the onions, as the spring moisture allows the bulbs to take root better. Delay in disembarkation may result in desiccation of the soil, and the rooting of the bulbs is stretched out for a long time.
This results in more rapid development of the leaves compared to the root system, with the result that this mismatch significantly reduces the yield. With a delay in planting by 1.5-2 weeks due to insufficiently good and late rooting, as well as slow development of plants, a large number of small bulbs such as sets, as well as unripe onions (up to 30%) are formed.
Before planting, the samples are sorted and the bulbs are trimmed to the shoulders. This technique contributes to the accelerated appearance of leaves, their more amicable regrowth, but it must be remembered that putrefactive bacteria can find themselves on the cut surface of the onion, which are very abundant in the soil. Good results are obtained by soaking the bulbs in a solution of micronutrient fertilizers - 1 tablet per bucket, or potassium permanganate - 1%.
Soaking the bulbs in a 0.1-0.2% solution of copper sulfate not only increases the resistance of plants to fungal diseases, but also enriches the plants with copper, the lack of which is more pronounced on acidic soils. For disinfection from downy mildew pathogens, the bulbs are heated for 8 hours at a temperature of 40-42 ° C.
The bulbs are planted on the shoulders. After planting, the rows can be mulched with humus or peat in a layer of 1-2 cm. 1.5-2.5 kg are consumed per 1 m². In the Vologda, Kirov regions, in some districts of the Novgorod region, experienced gardeners cover the onion plantings with fresh manure on top, with a layer of 4-6 cm (6-8 kg / m²).
At the same time, moisture is retained, the temperature of the soil increases, which accelerates the emergence of seedlings and the initial growth of leaves. Bulbs can be planted 7-10 days earlier. After the leaves grow back to a height of 3-5 cm, the manure is raked from the bulbs into the furrows and mixed with the soil. You should not delay with this work, so as not to damage the young fragile leaves.
If bulbs are found on the surface of the ridges that have been squeezed out of the soil after regrowth, they cannot be pushed into the soil - the roots will break. These plants must be carefully sprinkled with loose, moist earth.
All care consists of loosening, weeding. It is impossible to loosen very deeply, so as not to damage the roots. In early summer, if necessary, plants are watered 1-3 times. Vegetatively propagated onion varieties need water no less than when grown from seedlings. Dryness of the soil, especially at the beginning of plant development, is one of the factors that retard the growth of vegetative mass and introduce the bulb into a state of forced dormancy, as a result of which the yield is significantly reduced.
Plants are watered abundantly, coinciding with the time of feeding in the main phases of growth and development. It is better to do them in the evening or in cloudy weather. During the ripening of the onion, the plants do not need a lot of water. An excess of it is even harmful, since watering promotes the growth of leaves. Watering doses and timing are set depending on the condition of the plants, soil moisture and weather conditions.
At the first stages of development, the plants use the reserve nutrients of the mother bulb, which they have enough for 20-25 days, after which they intensively switch to root nutrition. Three weeks after planting the bulbs, make the first top dressing (in g / m²): 15 ammonium nitrate, 10 superphosphate and 5 potassium chloride; during the period of rapid growth of leaves - the second: 15-20 superphosphate and 8-10 potassium chloride, and during the period of mass formation of bulbs - the third (if required) with the same fertilizersas the second.
If arrows appear, it is better to break them, which increases the yield by 40%. It is better to break out the arrows in dry, sunny weather, so that the wounds heal faster.
To accelerate the ripening of the bulbs, the soil is carefully raked away from the plants at the beginning of the lodging of the leaves. In wet weather during this period, some of the roots can be carefully trimmed 15-20 days before harvesting. It is necessary to harvest vegetatively propagated onion varieties in the conditions of the Leningrad region before the onset of rainy weather. The best harvest time is the second half of August (15-25). After pulling out from the soil, the bulbs in the nest must be divided, then after ripening they will have a more even, rounded shape. It is advisable to dry onions in a garden bed under the sun, but in the conditions of changeable weather at the end of August, this is not always possible. Plants, together with foliage, are placed under a canopy in a well-ventilated area and dried.
To prevent the leaves from prying, you need to spread the onion in a thin layer and stir it constantly. When the leaves are dry, it is thoroughly cleaned. In this case, special attention should be paid to the bottom, as it may contain onion fly larvae or egg-laying. Experienced amateurs, when processing bulbs in autumn, even peel them "white". Healthy, ripe bulbs are laid for storage, and for some reason unsuitable for this should be immediately eaten.
Some hobbyists cut off the leaves when harvesting, then ripen the bulbs. This is not worth doing, because, firstly, part of the harvest is lost, and secondly, the onion that has ripened when harvesting with leaves is protected from pathogens, while when cutting leaves, pathogens of onion neck rot, as well as bacteriosis, get into the wounds, which in turn leads to large losses of onions during storage.
For food purposes, it is better to store onions at a temperature of 0 ... -1 ° C and an air humidity of 60-70%, then the onions will dry out and deplete less. It can be stored in boxes with a layer of 20-30 cm. The bulbs of vegetatively propagated varieties are well stored, braided in braids, until September next year, even at a temperature of 18-20 ° C. Onions for seed purposes are stored at room temperature (18-20 ° C), otherwise a significant percentage of plants after planting may give an arrow.
When growing vegetatively propagated onions, it is necessary to take into account the place of purchase of the planting material. The biological characteristics of varieties associated with origin affect their agricultural technology. The bows of the Pskov, Vologda regions, Latvia respond well to soil fertility, increasing productivity by 2-3 times. Local varieties of Kirov, Novgorod, Leningrad, Tver regions, Karelia are more responsive to lighting conditions and daylight hours.
Vegetatively propagated varieties are capable of producing a high yield of bulbs with good soil filling and good care. Experienced gardeners get up to 5-7 kg of bulbs from 1 m².
Read the end of "Growing Green Onions" →
candidate of agricultural sciences
There is nothing easier than growing a wild onion at home. However, it is not always possible to get a good harvest, because each plant must have its own climate and soil. So let's start by preparing the land. So, a wild plant does not like soil with high acidity, therefore, on such a surface, you should not expect a good harvest. The green feathers of perennials like neutral or slightly acidic soil, which is located near the water, but the bed should not be constantly wet.
When choosing a place, vegetable predecessors are also not an insignificant factor. The ideal patch for wild onions would be where tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes grew last year. It is advisable to avoid such a neighborhood: legumes, onions and beets. They have a negative effect on growing herbs with a garlic flavor and slow down the growth of the plant.
They begin to prepare the soil in the fall. Initially, the land is plowed, then weeds and debris are removed. Next, humus is introduced, which can be manure. Usually, you need about 8 kg of fertilizer per square meter, but if your land is already noble, then the amount of organic additives is halved. After that, the beds are dug up again and left until spring.
In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, the land is plowed to a depth of 15-20 cm twice a month, until the seeds are sown. This procedure is carried out so that the soil is enriched with oxygen and becomes looser. A couple of weeks before planting, mineral fertilizers are applied. After all, it is precisely such land conditions that will help the planted onion to take root better and rise faster.
There are two ways to grow onions: seeds and bulbs. Each gardener chooses the most successful option, which will give good germination in a certain climate. Let's make a reservation right away that it doesn't matter which planting method you choose, the main thing is that the soil is well moistened during the cultivation of the holes. Let's take a closer look at each growing method.
Sowing seeds is carried out in autumn, so that with the arrival of spring, collect the first green onion from the beds. So, the landing is carried out as follows. In mid-October, the seed is checked for germination; for this, the planting material is poured with water at room temperature, left for an hour, then the result is monitored. The floating seeds are thrown away, and those that have settled to the bottom are poured with a weak solution of manganese for 30 minutes.
Along the moistened bed, grooves are made, the row spacing of which is 25-30 cm. Seeds are planted one piece at a time at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other. Gently sprinkle with earth and watered again. If it is sunny outside and the rays fall on the garden bed, then the planting material is covered with an agricultural canvas until the sun "hides". Before the first frosts, the bed is covered with mulch so that the seeds do not freeze from a sharp temperature drop. In the spring, mulch is removed with garden tools, and the greens that appear are fertilized with mineral or complex fertilizers.
You can also propagate a wild onion plantation with bulbs. It is advisable to plant onion turnips in early spring, when green shoots appear on the surface of the earth's crust. Young onions are taken out of the ground, divided into cloves and transplanted into a prepared bed in grooves at a distance of 20 cm from each other. A depth of 7 cm is considered ideal for planting large planting material; for small specimens, 2 cm depth is enough.
It is not difficult to grow allspice, Chinese garlic, wild garlic, wild garlic, bear onion or other types of wild onion crops, the main thing is to choose the right care for the plant, after which it will be possible to eat fresh herbs for a whole year. It consists in weekly watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds, making various dressings and timely harvesting.
Bulb onion cultivation The homeland of onions is the mountainous regions of Central Asia. In this region, related species grow, similar to onions in many ways. These are Vavilov's onions (A vavilovii), Pskemsky onions (A pskemense), Oshanin's onions (A oschaninii), milk onions (A galanthum), all of them are easily crossed with varieties of onions, but the offspring in most cases turns out to be sterile, i.e. does not give seeds. The local population actively collected these onions for food, which led to a sharp decline in their numbers. At present, the Pskem onion and the Vavilov onion are listed in the Red Book.
Onions, obviously, served as a product of cultivation and selection by man and therefore independently appeared in several areas where people transplanted plants from the mountains to the plains, closer to their homes.
Growing onions in Russia
Since ancient times, onions have been bred in Rostov the Great, Suzdal, Murom and other cities. Many well-known and now local varieties bear the name of the geographical points in which they originated: Rostovsky Repchaty, Myachkovsky (village of Myachkovo, Moscow region), Strigunovsky (village of Striguny, Kursk region), Bessonovsky (village of Bessonovka, Penza region), Pogarsky (Pogarsky district, Bryansk region).In the northern regions - Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda - a culture of vegetatively propagated onions has developed.
Local varieties, possessing a relatively small bulb (25.40 g) and a large number of primordia, made it possible to obtain high yields with a short growing season.
Over the years, onion production technology has been created and improved, adapted to local natural conditions. Historically, the cultivation method has also developed - from seedlings. Gardeners could not do without this intermediate link, since large bulbs from seeds did not grow in one summer. Getting onion seeds is also challenging, as it takes about 120 days from planting the bulbs to ripening. In the Non-Black Earth Region, the summer is never so long, at the beginning of September there are already frosts, which the seeds cannot withstand in milk ripeness. However, vegetable growers have learned to ripen onion testes indoors on special stalk dryers. In Penza province, onion mother plants were grown in boxes before planting in the ground and planted with a lump of soil, like seedlings.
The Russian agronomist, plant grower and writer A.T. Bolotov in the magazine "Economic Store" (1782) described Russian onion management on the example of the experience of gardeners in Borovsk, Kaluga region, who supplied seeds, sets and excellent onion to the markets of other cities.
Onions were grown in Borovsk in a three-year culture. In the first year, sowing seeds in early spring on unfertilized soils and in the sun, they received small onion seedlings. Plants grown when they thickened quickly stopped growing. After the tops were dry, the seedlings were well dried and stored in dry, cold cellars. In the second year, large bulbs were grown from it, the most selective of which were left for seeds.
Borovchans called Sevok Sevak, the turnip obtained from it - Pervak, and the smallest Sevok - Varenets. It was from the latter that the most perfect bulbs in all respects were obtained. Sevok was planted in early spring on the beds prepared in the fall. In an effort to get a large turnip, the bulbs, despite their small size, were rarely placed - almost half an arshin (35.5 cm) from one another. As a result, the turnip sometimes reached two vershoks in diameter (about 9 cm). Often nests of two or three bulbs were obtained. In the process of cultivation, not a single feather was plucked from the plants, and the emerging flower arrows were broken out. Bulbs from shot forms were used for food immediately after harvesting.
Borovtsi residents also propagated onions vegetatively, planting small pervak bulbs, from which they obtained onion nests, called a friend. Of these, the smallest ones were again selected to obtain the third year onion - the tretyak. Then a quarter-onion was obtained in succession. In all cases, the bow was born exceptionally well. However, for more than four years, onions were not propagated vegetatively, as they became smaller and lost quality. Borovskiy Local variety was characterized by large and medium-sized bulbs of golden yellow color, very dense and hard, with a spicy taste and high keeping quality.
In the 19th century, truck farming in Russia reached its peak. The highest level of production was in the Yaroslavl province, where the main center of onion production was the Rostov district with 55 garden villages. Here, as well as in the village of Mstera in the Vladimir province, in the villages of Myachkovo and Shchapovo in the Moscow province, in the village of Bessonovka near Penza and others, onion culture has developed to an industrial level.
All work on onion growing, harvesting, drying was done manually. Onion care was thorough, since the whole life in the villages depended on its harvest and quality. They made tools designed specifically for onion culture - staples for digging in bulbs, rare wooden rakes for tedding, etc.
The peasants used their own, annually selected planting material. As a result, economically valuable traits such as resistance to pathogens and unfavorable environmental conditions, keeping quality, uniformity of bulbs, etc., increased from year to year. This is how wonderful onion varieties were created - Arzamassky Local, Myachkovsky Local,
* You can also stir up the onion with an ordinary rake, after putting on pieces of a rubber or plastic tube on their teeth,
Pogarsky Local, Rostov Bulb Local, Mstersky, etc.
In the village of Mstera, Vladimir province, each gardener himself produced seeds, sets, samples and uterine onions. The main market product was sampling, which was annually exported from Mstera up to 10,000 poods (160 tons).
Another center of onion production was in the Spassky district of the Ryazan region, in the village of Kutukovo. Spassky, or Kutukovsky, onions have been grown since time immemorial in the floodplain of the Oka River. Spassky onion was formed as a cultivar on a high agricultural background with careful care and systematic selection. Everything was subordinate to the production of onions, which ensure the prosperity of the peasants. The houses were built in such a way that they lived "between the onions": below, under the floor, they arranged cellars, where commodity and uterine onions were stored on shelves and in bins, in the upper rooms there were high ceilings and wide hinged shelves - beds where sevok and samples were kept.
Cultivation of onions was economically profitable, due to the labor intensity, it absorbed all the working hands in families, and production was profitable. The peasants exported onions for exchange for bread to Ryazan and nearby provinces - a pood of grain was exchanged for a pood of onions. Buyers also came to the villages, who rafted onions along the Oka for sale in Moscow and even abroad. For export, each onion was wrapped in wax paper and carefully packed in boxes. It was transported to the UK with little or no loss. Variety Spassky Mestny (until 1935, Kutukovsky) was characterized by medium-sized dense bulbs of round-flat shape and yellow with a brown shade of color, a large number of primordia.
Several centers of onion cultivation have developed near Moscow. In some years, large onion bulbs were obtained here in one year when sowing seeds, and the number of seedlings in the harvest did not exceed 10%. The variety Myachkovsky from Kolomensky district was especially distinguished, which was also sold abroad. This variety was distinguished by high yield, semi-sharp taste, dense large yellow bulbs. S.M. Rytov observed the bulbs of the Myachkovsky onion with a diameter of up to 3 vershoks (about 14 cm),
The industrial culture of onion was practiced in Podolsk, Mozhaisk, Serpukhov districts. Near Mozhaisk, onions were propagated mainly vegetatively. There were special methods of growing Mozhaisk onions. For example, after the formation of the bulbs, the soil was raked away from them so that only the bottom was in the soil. It was believed that in this case the bulbs ripen faster and better.
Since ancient times, onions have been grown in Arzamas (Nizhny Novgorod region), where the villages of Kichanzino and Krasnoe were the centers of the typical Arzamas onion. In this area, the soils are extremely favorable for onions - light silty loams, soft, loose and very fertile. Onions in Arzamas were grown from sets. The average yield of turnip onions from seedlings at the beginning of the century was about 1.5 kg per 1 m3.
The main methods of onion cultivation in Russia at that time were a two-three-year culture from a sample and seedlings. The assortment included varieties - Danilovsky, Romanovsky, Bessonovsky, Nezhinsky, Zaraisky, Skopinsky, Rostovsky, Astrakhansky White, Holland Blood-Red, etc. These are mainly local varieties, well adapted to soil and climatic conditions and resistant to certain races of pathogens and pests ... They are the product of natural and artificial selection over hundreds of generations. Among the gardeners there were many skilled craftsmen who felt what forms needed to be selected in order to achieve a certain property.
Old Russian onion varieties, as a rule, are heterogeneous in many ways and represent populations, that is, they contain different groups of plants that have hereditary differences. However, it is precisely due to the physiological difference in quality that these varieties are plastic, viable, and, consequently, reliably provide a harvest in changing weather and other conditions. They are widely cultivated even now.
Unfortunately, the ancient districts of onion are gradually losing their importance. The age-old experience of Russian truck farming is lost, the methods and "secrets" of growing onions are forgotten. The accumulated knowledge can still be saved, and this should be facilitated by amateur vegetable growers, especially those who live in the ancient centers of onion culture.
There are more in common than differences between shallots and onions, in some sources they are even called forms of the same type. Similar features include a dense fleshy turnip weighing 15–40 g, long hollow leaves of rich green color with a bluish bloom, a two-year growing cycle, and requirements for agricultural technology. But there are also differences.
It is interesting! Local varieties differ in taste and color. In the southern regions, colored (pink, purple) bulbs with sweet pulp prevail. The farther north, the lighter and sharper the magpie.
Origin of culture
Presumably, the homeland of this type of onion is Asia Minor. Shallot is a close relative of the onion. In Russia, it is known under the names kuschevka, shrike, family. It is grown everywhere in Western Europe, in our country it is also widespread.
For food and medicinal purposes, shallots are used in the same way as onions, but they have a more delicate feather and small bulbs that are very well stored.
Shallots have long been considered gourmet onions. It is found in many French recipes as it is usually spicier than onion.
A biennial plant, when sowing seeds in the 1st year of life, forms a nest of bulbs (4-5) of small size. In the 2nd year, the planted bulbs give nests with 8-10 onions, 25-50 g each. Shallots are multi-germ bulbs. Several (up to 20) arrows 50-70 cm high emerge from them, without swelling. Long day conditions and high temperatures favor the formation of bulbs. Lower temperatures accelerate shooting.
Requirements for soil, growing conditions are the same as for onions.
When the bulbs are planted, plants with a rosette of compactly arranged fistula leaves are formed. Leaves are more tender than onions, retain their qualities longer, so shallots are more suitable for forcing green feathers than onions.
The larger the bulb, the more leaf mass and more bulbs will be formed in the nest.
The bulbs are more frost-resistant than onion bulbs: they can freeze and thaw, retaining the ability to regrow, therefore, even in the Moscow region, it is often planted in the fall, just like winter garlic.
More than 25 varieties of shallots are included in the State Register, but it should be said that all of them are rather poorly distributed. Mostly local varieties are grown, most often a mixture of varieties. The varieties are recommended for widespread cultivation.
Of the 11 new varieties included in the State Register in recent years, 8 are medium-late (Ayrat, Andreikos, Miner, Dimon, Sibiryak, Octopus and etc.). Among the early maturing, the following can be recommended.
Brnilla P1 - the only hybrid of shallots, mid-season, the period when sowing seeds from germination to lodging of feathers is 82-87 days. The bulbs are large (30-40 g), round, yellow-brown, semi-sharp.
Belozerets 94 - early ripe, small bulb (21-27 g), round or round-oval, light lilac with a yellow tinge and purple color of juicy scales, pungent taste.
Emerald - early maturing, the bulb is round, small (weighing 18-22 g), brown with a pink tinge, the taste is semi-sharp, perfectly stored.
Cascade - early ripe, broad-ovate bulb, weighing 35-37 g, pink, spicy taste, stored for up to 7 months.
Siberian yellow - early ripening, flat bulb, weighing 10-20 g, yellow.
Sprint - the earliest variety (the period from planting onions to harvesting for green feathers is 25-35 days). The bulbs are round, weighing 20-25 g, light yellow with a light pink tint, the taste is spicy.
For shallots, fertile soils are suitable - light or medium loams, neutral in acidity. Before sowing or planting, the soil is filled with compost at the rate of 4-6 kg / m2.
Basically, shallots are propagated vegetatively - by bulbs. Before planting, the bulbs are warmed up for 8 hours at a temperature of 40-41 ° C against peronosporosis and so that there are fewer arrows.
The best planting dates in the Non-Black Earth Zone are early May, in the south - late October. Distance between rows 25-30 cm, between bulbs in a row 10-16 cm. Planting depth 3-4 cm from the top of the bulb to the soil surface.
Care consists in weeding, loosening, watering. Watering in May-June is very important, since during this period the main formation of the crop takes place.
Shallots ripen in early August, harvesting begins after the leaves have lodged. With good ripening and drying, shallots can be stored for a longer time than the most mature onions almost until the new harvest.
Shal onions are better than onions, suitable for forcing on greens in winter. But since it has a longer dormancy period, it does not germinate well since autumn: it is best to plant it in January and later for forcing the feather.
How to get seeds
Prolonged vegetative propagation of shallots leads to a decrease in the size of the bulb and the accumulation of viral diseases, therefore, every 3 years of planting, it is necessary to renew the planting by sowing seeds.
Shallots are easily crossed with onions, so spatial isolation is required to obtain seeds.
Blooms in the second year later than onions. The seeds are similar to onion seeds, but slightly smaller.
Notes for the hostess Poor Man's Sauce
3 onions, shallots, 0.5 liters of broth, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of vinegar or diluted citric acid, a set of vegetables, salt, ground pepper, parsley.
In a saucepan with broth and vinegar, put chopped onions and parsley, chopped vegetables, salt, pepper and boil to taste for 5 minutes.
Served with fatty meat
Depending on the need, you can periodically cut off several onion feathers or almost the entire aerial part at once (complete cutting is practiced from 2 to 4 times per season). Cutting is justified when the leaves reach a height of 25–40 cm. The last time the crop is harvested no later than mid-September. If arrows are not needed to obtain seeds, they are also eaten at a young age along with the leaves.
Gathering the crop, very short feathers are left on the plants.
The most delicious greens are freshly cut. But if it needs to be stored, it is done in closed bags or polyethylene containers in the refrigerator. Shelf life - no more than 2 weeks. Longer - only in the freezer or dried.
Chives decorate the garden with graceful thin leaves and beautiful flowers. If you do not spare the whole garden for him, he will supply the owner with delicate vitamin greens, which comes to the table earlier than many other vegetables and continues to delight until autumn. Maintenance of this onion is minimal, so it is becoming more and more popular.
Onions are relatively cold-resistant plants.Its seeds are able to germinate even at a temperature of +5 degrees. Onion shoots can withstand short-term frosts and low temperatures. That is why they begin to plant it very early.
For the cultivation of onions, areas with rather fertile soil are chosen, where a large amount of organic matter was introduced. When preparing the site, the soil is dug to the depth of the entire fertile layer. Then, in early spring, urea, superphosphate and potassium chloride are added to the selected area.
In order for friendly seedlings to appear and plants develop faster, onion seeds are soaked for germination until the seeds have white roots, and then dried until they flow. Sow onions in the spring, early, in moist soil.
For sowing, a quarter meter wide beds are broken on the site and onion seeds are sown in the furrows to a depth of 2 cm. Then the seeds are covered with earth and compacted. From above, onion crops are mulched with peat or humus. For a more even distribution of small seeds when sowing, they are mixed with sand or powdered with white tooth powder so that they turn white and are clearly visible. The approximate consumption of onion seeds is 1 kg per 10 meters of the garden, depending on the germination of the seeds.
Onion shoots appear two weeks after sowing. During this time, many weeds germinate, which can drown out tender onion shoots. Therefore, even before the first shoots appear, it is necessary to carefully loosen the aisles and weed the weeds.
For better growth, onions must be fertilized with organic matter and complete mineral fertilizers. The very first feeding of onions should be done in the phase of three real leaves with slurry diluted 1: 5 with water with the addition of 30 g of superphosphate or chicken manure mash in a ratio of 1:10. During the subcortex, the onion must be thinned out, leaving the plants at a distance of 4 cm.
At the next top dressing, mineral fertilizers are applied - 30 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea and 15 g of potassium chloride are dissolved in a bucket of water. One bucket of fertilizer is enough for 10 meters of the garden bed. If plant growth is intensive, then nitrogen fertilization must be excluded. Since July, they also do not feed with nitrogen, but add superphosphate and potassium chloride.
Harvesting of the bulbs begins when the leaves are lodging and yellowing, at the end of summer. The onions pulled out together with the tops are left in the garden for ripening for one week, and then the tops are cut off and transferred to a ventilated room.