Sea buckthorn, despite its thorns, is loved by many gardeners. It grows as a shrub or a short tree, and already in the third year yields a harvest of very useful berries. The planting technology of this culture is not much different from the rest. However, there are biological features that you should pay attention to even before buying a seedling.
Sea buckthorn grows in the wild on the shores of lakes, flooded sections of rivers, mountain slopes up to an altitude of 2100 m. The culture is widespread in Siberia. It is planted to fix sandy soil, road slopes, ravines. And all because the sea buckthorn has a superficial root system that envelops the top layer of the earth, and it spreads far beyond the crown of the tree. Shoots can be found within a radius of 3-5 meters. In addition, this is a dioecious plant: if you want to get a harvest, then you need to plant at least two bushes: a male and a female. When planning a plot for sea buckthorn, be sure to consider these features.
Wild sea buckthorn usually grows near water bodies and on mountain slopes
Sea buckthorn berries are a natural multivitamin concentrate. They contain many vitamins: C, PP, B1, B2, K, E and carotene, organic acids: tartaric, oxalic, malic, as well as trace elements: manganese, boron, iron.
The best time for planting is spring, before bud break on the seedling. Even an adult sea buckthorn overwinters poorly: during winters with little snow, the surface roots freeze out, some of the branches dry out. In addition, this culture has a very short dormant period; at the very first thaw, it dissolves its buds, which fall under severe spring frosts. And a young and fragile bush has even less chances to survive as a result of an autumn planting. He needs to adapt and take root well in a new site. It is impossible to do this in a short autumn. There are recommendations to plant sea buckthorn in the summer, abandoning the autumn planting. However, in summer it is better to buy seedlings with a closed root system, that is, grown in containers.
Most often, gardeners simply dig root shoots in their garden and generously share it with their neighbors. In most cases, a very thorny wild with small and sour berries grows from such planting material. The reason is that cultivated varieties are grafted onto wild ones, their root shoots repeat the properties of the rootstock, and not varietal ones. When buying seedlings, this also needs to be taken into account, unscrupulous sellers tend to use to their advantage the ability of the culture to give a lot of growth.
Features of the choice of sea buckthorn seedlings:
In female sea buckthorn plants, the buds are small, arranged in pairs, male plants are larger, covered with many lentils
Distinguishing adult plants by sex is easy if you have both representatives in front of you and they can be compared. In women, the kidneys are small and neat, arranged in pairs; in men, they are large, rough, covered with lenticels. Flowering takes place imperceptibly, even before the leaves bloom. In females, small green pistils appear in the axils of lentils, one at a time, rarely 2-3, and in males, brown dusty stamens collected in a short spike.
If the plot is small or you want to plant only one sea buckthorn bush, then you can graft a stalk of a male plant into the crown of a female one. Another option: during flowering, cut a branch with anthers in another garden or at a wild boar and hang it inside the crown of your sea buckthorn.
And one more feature when choosing sea buckthorn seedlings: on its roots there are round growths - nodules. Inexperienced gardeners take them for a sign of illness, refuse seedlings or cut off these formations. Meanwhile, underground nodules play an important role, with their help, sea buckthorn gets its own food - it assimilates nitrogen from the air. In adult plants, such outgrowths reach the size of a chicken egg. According to the observations of gardeners, if a tree grows on fertile soil, then the growths are small, almost imperceptible, and on the poor, on the contrary, large.
Swelling on the roots of sea buckthorn is not a disease, but a biological feature of the culture
Choosing a place for sea buckthorn is also not easy.
But it is better not to rely on neighbors and plant a male and 2-3 female seedlings at a distance of at least 2-2.5 m and a maximum of 50-100 m. You can position them relative to each other as you like: a triangle, a square, in one row. There is a practice of planting in different corners of the site. If some winds prevail in your region, for example, southeastern winds, then plant the male plant from this, that is, the leeward side.
For sea buckthorn, it is not enough just to dig a hole, you need to dig the entire area that you have allocated for it onto the bayonet of the shovel. Skeletal roots will spread in the upper layer of the soil, and it needs to be filled with fertilizers. For a one-two-year-old seedling, a plot of 2x2 m is sufficient. Scatter a bucket of humus or compost, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate on 1 m². If the soil is acidic, add a glass of dolomite flour.
The planting pit should be 40 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter
The drainage layer in the pit should be about 10 cm
Sometimes it is necessary to fill in the hole not the dug earth, but its mixture with peat and river sand
The root collar of the seedling should be at the level of the ground horizon
One of the most effective ways to water is with a hole
The seedling needs to be attached to the peg
If there is an urgent need to transplant the sea buckthorn to another place, then it is better to do this also in the spring, and while the tree is still small - 2-3 years old. An adult fruiting tree will not take root, since it is impossible to dig up all of its roots that have spread over the site. From a self-rooted sea buckthorn, unvaccinated, it is better to take shoots and transplant it.
The shoots and the mother plant have a common root, which must be cut during transplantation.
In the same way, young trees are transplanted, raking the top layer of the earth in order to have an idea of the location of the roots. The less you damage them, the higher the chance that the sea buckthorn will take root. If the roots are damaged, then reduce the volume of the aboveground part: cut off the branches, shorten the trunks. It will be easier for the sea buckthorn to take root, and then it will quickly restore the crown.
The planting process itself is very simple, but there are many nuances when choosing seedlings and planning a site. Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant, so one bush will bear fruit only if there is a male plant in the neighborhood, within a radius of up to 100 m. You also need to take into account the location of the roots: they spread horizontally and far from the tree, it will be impossible to dig the ground next to the sea buckthorn. So, before buying seedlings, you need to decide whether you have such a place in the garden and is it not a pity to allocate so much land for sea buckthorn.
I live in Siberia. I have my own house and my own plot) In the articles I share my experience, I learn something myself with you)
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Sea buckthorn is capable of producing a bountiful harvest of very useful berries every year. But in order to achieve maximum success, you need to know the rules for planting a plant.
Each fruit crop has its own distinctive features to consider.
As a rule, sea buckthorn is planted in open soil at the beginning of the spring, before the buds open. Such a plant tolerates an autumn planting extremely poorly. It is recommended to plant sea buckthorn in a well-lit area located on the periphery of the garden area. The fact is that in a similar area, you can safely place 3 or 4 female and 1 male plant. If the soil is clay or acidic, then it is not suitable for planting such a culture. This plant will grow best in soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. If the soil is acidic, then liming it is carried out before planting sea buckthorn, for this, lime tuff or ground limestone is introduced into it for digging, while 250 to 400 grams of substance are taken per 1 square meter. This volume of the deoxidizer should be enough for 8-10 years. The depth of the groundwater must be at least 200 cm. The site where strawberries were previously grown is not recommended for planting sea buckthorn, since these crops have the same diseases.
Experienced gardeners recommend buying one or two year old seedlings. Immediately before planting in open soil, the root system of the plant should be dipped in a clay mash. In the event that the plant's root system has dried up quite strongly, it must first be placed in a container with water for 1-2 days, in which case it will become elastic again.
The preparation of the site for planting is carried out in the autumn. To do this, you need to dig up the soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet, while 200 grams of superphosphate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate and from 4 to 5 buckets of humus per 1 square meter are introduced into it. The hole itself should be dug in spring, its size should be 0.65x0.65x0.65 m, the distance between plants should be 200 cm. A wooden stake should be installed in the center of the bottom of the hole, the height of which should be 100-120 centimeters. Then, nutritious soil is poured into the bottom of the pit, and a seedling is placed on top of it. After all the roots are straightened, the pit should be filled with soil, which is pre-mixed with humus, coarse sand or peat in a 1: 1 ratio. Make sure that the root collar of the seedling is not buried more than 30 mm into the soil. Around the seedling, it is necessary to make a not very large circular hole into which water is poured during watering. After the sea buckthorn is tied to the peg, it needs to be watered with 20-30 liters of water. After the liquid is absorbed into the hole, it should be covered with a layer of mulch (dry soil or humus) so that it is level with the soil surface. In order for the plant to take root quickly and well enough, its first 30 days must be watered daily.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting sea buckthorn in open soil in the fall. However, if this is simply necessary, then this procedure should be carried out before the second half of October, otherwise it will not have time to take root in a new place until the first frost. It should also be borne in mind that the autumn planting will only make sense if the autumn is quite long in the region, and the seedling meets all the requests, namely:
Pay attention to the bark, if the seedling is healthy, then it will be elastic without wrinkles and injuries. The bark should adhere tightly to the wood, the color of which should not be brownish. The fact is that the wood becomes brown only in seedlings damaged by frost.
Prepare the pit as described above. A peg is installed in the center of its bottom and soil is poured into a mound, taken from under an adult sea buckthorn bush, which must first be combined with a handful of double superphosphate, 1 bucket of humus and 1 tbsp. wood ash. Further planting is carried out in the same way as in the spring.
The varieties that I selected for my site after the dominance of the "savages":
Low-growing variety, up to 2.5 m. Resistant to diseases. Average yield. The fruits ripen from mid-August to early September (average ripening period).
Variety 'Moscow beauty'
Orange berries are large, up to 10 g, with a delicate sweet and sour pulp. Refers to table varieties.
Refers to universal varieties. Medium-sized, grows up to 4 m, with small sparse thorns, orange berries, sweeter than those of the 'Moscow Beauty', large (0.8-1.0 g).
Variety 'Chuiskaya'. Photo from the site alesad.ru
The fruits ripen from mid-August to early September.
I liked it because of the beautiful fruits. The tree is medium-sized.
Variety 'Krasnoplodnaya'. Photo from the site vosledoma.com
The berries are medium in size, with a pronounced sourness. Disease resistant.
If you, like me, started your acquaintance with sea buckthorn from the wild, do not be afraid to plant a cultivar! And, perhaps, the noble sea buckthorn will become your favorite plant.
picking berries and making sea buckthorn oil
Sea buckthorn is one of the most profitable crops; it is difficult to even imagine any other plant that allows, without conflicting with the law, to receive a final product estimated at $ 200 from a plot of land of 8 square meters per season, and this at relatively low production costs, most of which account for for manual collection of fruits - they have been trying to mechanize the collection for a long time, but so far unsuccessfully.
In the south, sea buckthorn fruits ripen in July-August (for varieties of the Altai population), in September-October (for varieties and forms of the Danube, Kuban populations) and leave them on trees until winter in order to beat them in the frost, as is done in Siberia, no no possibility: as soon as the birds taste it, they clear the trees 2-3 days before the berries.
Our summer residents, at first seduced by the advertising of sea buckthorn oil, and who planted non-varietal, most often seedlings, purchased on the market, were horrified at their roundabout and rather uprooted them. Those who got varietal plants, unknowingly, torment themselves at harvest, picking a berry, and can collect no more than a bucket in a day, while using simple devices for a daylight hours, you can stably harvest from an entire plot of 70-100 kg clean of leaves berries completely ready for processing.
Use a plank tray with a plywood bottom to collect. Its approximate dimensions: 80x50 cm, wall height 10-12 cm. To the side walls, almost at the very upper edge in the middle, the ends of a wide (3-5 cm) belt are attached (preferably removable) along the length of the selected so that the tray hangs either on the neck, or on the lower back, the latter method is much more convenient, although at first it is difficult to get used to this way of carrying the tray.
The collection is carried out with special scrapers made of steel wire with a diameter of 1.5-2 mm, the thinner one is unsuitable, since the scraper turns out to be too flexible and unstable in the hands, as well as the thicker one, from which the product turns out to be coarse, weakly springy and therefore peels off small branches , leaves, bark. To prevent the horns from falling behind each other, their ends are additionally slightly bent. The shoulders of the scraper are wrapped with aluminum wire - it is easier to hold the scraper while working and it is faster to be found in the grass if it falls. In order not to drop the scraper, you can attach a pavorza - a strap for attaching to the wrist.
They hold the scraper in the right hand, hold the branch over the tray with their left hand, clamp the branch with fruits between the scraper horns and move slightly from top to bottom in slightly rotational movements in one direction or the other, scrape the berries into the tray. To prevent juice from getting on the body, use rubber gloves (preferably dielectric made of yellow soft rubber), a rubberized or plastic apron, and goggles. Sea buckthorn juice has a high acidity and if the skin has wounds, then with constant exposure they corrode and do not heal for a long time.
After removing 2-3 kilograms of berries from the tree onto the tray, they approach the goat stand, which is also used when picking berries from high-lying branches, remove the tray and in a circular motion of the tray heap leaves in the center of the tray, which are then removed. In specialized farms, these leaves are handed over for the manufacture of cosmetics. The leaves remaining among the berries are forced to stick to the bottom of the tray, slightly tossing the berries with vertical movements of the tray and slightly moving at the same time away from you and towards you. In order for the leaves to adhere better to the bottom, optimal moisture is needed, too dry leaves do not stick and it is necessary to add a small amount of water or simply crush a certain amount of berries, when too much juice is released and waterlogging is created, the excess moisture is removed with a foam sponge. After the described manipulations, the berries are thrown to one side of the tray, and on the free side, the adhered leaves are removed with a sponge, then the berries are moved to the cleaned side and the bottom is also cleaned from the leaves. This technique is repeated several times. Additional cleaning of berries from the rest of the litter is carried out by busting with fingers.
Harvested and peeled berries, leaves are processed. Recipes for the preparation of various preserves can be found in many publications dedicated to sea buckthorn and cooking. But the preparation of sea buckthorn oil is best done according to the accepted factory technology.
There are two methods for producing sea buckthorn oil.
FIRST - the most progressive technology - is the extraction of fat-soluble compounds from dried sea buckthorn pulp with carbon tetrachloride or freon. The solvent is then sublimated and the natural oil remains. The content of carotenoids in it reaches more than 1000 mg%, that is, one percent. The cost of natural sea buckthorn oil on the world market delivers about US $ 200 per one
For use for medicinal purposes, the oil obtained in this way is brought to the pharmacopoeial standard: the sum of carotenoids is 180 mg%, tocopherol is 100 mg%, acidity is not more than 14.5, density is within 1.468-1.475 and other indicators. For this purpose, natural sea buckthorn oil is diluted with vegetable oil, which, in terms of quality, is in the following order: Provencal, sesame, sunflower. For domestic supplies, they are usually prepared with sunflower oil, the quality of which has its own requirements: the oil should only be cold-pressed, refined, deodorized and suitable for medical use in all other respects.
The SECOND technique is based on the recovery of fatty compounds from dried sea buckthorn pulp with vegetable oil. In this case, the finished oil is obtained with indicators close to the pharmacopoeial standard, with the amount of carotenoids about 200 mg%. Ultimately, according to the results of laboratory studies, the oil is cut off and brought to a standard, with a carotenoid content of 180 mg% if the oil is obtained from fruits alone, and 130 mg% if the semi-finished product was fruits with 10% content of sea buckthorn leaves.
AT HOME CONDITIONS it is possible to prepare sea buckthorn oil using the recuperation method.
To do this, it is advisable to use berries from red-fruited varieties: Olive, Chulyshmanskaya and others, they have more carotenoids and the oil turns out to be more saturated, red-orange in color.
The collected berries are passed through a juicer. Soybeans are poured into stainless steel or enameled or glass containers and placed in a warm (20-30 degrees) place. The pulp is dried at a temperature of 40-50 degrees. And when the humidity reaches 14%, they are packed in paper or plastic bags and sent to storage in an unheated room, where they can be stored for two years.
After 2-3 days, fermentation begins in the juice and the fat cells in it float up. This "cap" is removed and combined with a portion of the dried pulp and dried again. The leftover juice is used for making wine or canned
After processing the berries, you can proceed to the direct preparation of sea buckthorn oil.
Regardless of the amount of dry pulp available, it is divided into at least 5 parts. The first part of the pulp with seeds is ground in a micro mill or coffee grinder. They take an enameled or stainless steel container, fill it with 4/5 of the volume of the crushed mass, pour vegetable oil heated to 70 degrees at the rate of 1.2 liters of oil per 1 kilogram of squeeze. The mass is stirred, the container is closed tightly with a lid and placed in a thermostat or drying (roasting) cabinet with a controlled temperature. They are kept at a temperature of 60-65 degrees (at a higher temperature, the decomposition of biologically active substances will begin) for 10-12 hours. After that, the mass from the container is transferred into a strong cloth bag, placed under a press (you can grape or lever) and squeeze out the oil. Hot pressing is much faster and more efficient.
The result is the first portion. It is ready
butter. Drain it into a separate container.
The remaining pulp from pressing is again placed in a container for warming up and filled with fresh vegetable oil equal in volume to the received first portion. The incubation time in the thermostat can be reduced to 6 hours. After squeezing, we get the second portion
infused oil. It is much paler than the first portion and contains less carotenoids; it is drained into a separate container for further use.
There are still a lot of useful substances in the pulp remaining after the second pressing, so this pulp is again placed in a container for heating and again poured with fresh heated vegetable oil, infused for about 6 hours in a thermostat, then after pressing, a THIRD portion of infused oil is obtained, which should be drained into a separate container for further use (all portions in containers are marked).
After removing the third portion, very few fat-soluble useful substances remain in the pulp and at home it makes no sense to fill in the next portion of oil, although in industrial conditions it is recovered 1-2 more times.
Due to the fact that a lot of water-soluble bioactive substances remain in the pressed mass, as well as about 20% of vegetable oil, which cannot be squeezed out with an ordinary household press, the remaining pulp should be used in additives for feed for livestock and poultry. With regular feeding with such pulp, chickens lay eggs almost all year round.
Now we take the next portion of fresh pulp, grind it, put it in a container for warming up, fill it with oil from the previously obtained SECOND portion, and add oil from the THIRD portion previously obtained to add to the required volume. We put in a thermostat for 10-12 hours. As a result, from fresh pulp and the second portion of oil poured in after pressing, we get the FIRST portion of infused oil and pour it into a container with the previously obtained first portion of ready-made sea buckthorn oil.
Pour the remaining pulp with the oil of the previously obtained third portion, adding fresh vegetable oil to the required volume, and after appropriate infusion and pressing, we obtain the SECOND portion of the infused oil.
Such cycles are repeated until all dry pulp is used.
At the end of the work, all portions are combined together, brought to condition by adding natural sea buckthorn oil or vegetable, based on the results of laboratory tests. Such analyzes can be done at the Central Pharmacological Laboratories, which are available at all regional pharmacy departments.
Despite the fact that at home, from the yellow-fruited varieties of sea buckthorn, oil is obtained with a low (50-80 mg%) content of carotenoids, it is not worse than the factory one in other indicators.
Sea buckthorn oil is stored in absolute darkness - light destroys active substances. Shelf life without preservatives is about 2 years.
Good luck to all. Best regards Gennady Kornilovich Gerasimov [email protected]
I have "Chuiskaya" and "Dar of Moscow State University", the second one has much larger berries. They ripen in the first half of September, with sunny weather - in the first week of September, despite the fact that the cold comes to us a week and a half earlier than the Moscow region. The gift of Moscow State University also has thorns, but they are kind of soft, bending. The taste is very good, the separation of the berries is dry. the harvest is excellent. I do not freeze, but rub it with sugar.
Vyacheslav Arzhanukhin: and what to look after her, it grows even where it is 30 years old and there is no dacha
Tatiana Denisenko: At the dacha, we don't take much care of it - we weed under it, dig in in the spring, whitewash the trunk, cut dry branches. It grows and multiplies remarkably. The only thing when the weather is too dry during the ripening of berries is to water it so that the harvest does not disappear.
Elena the Beautiful Rose: According to experts, the pollination radius of sea buckthorn is up to 4 km. You can tie the branches of a male tree in a water bottle to a female tree in the spring. But of course. to have your own "man" is the most optimal.
Lyubov Malakhova: And for 2 years in a row we have been attacked by a sea buckthorn fly and eats all the berries. Or rather, fly larvae. I read that there is no need to dig under it so that the fly cannot fly out of the ground.
Vyacheslav Arzhanukhin: I found a photo from an abandoned site, these are 2 tall, 5 meters each, also sea buckthorn has spread like a weed in other areas, not 30 years of course, but 25 years for sure, I constantly crawl past her for mushrooms. By the way, on one of the sites, American multi-colored raspberries grow, they say capricious, but it grows without leaving))
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Disclosed article. On the site there are 2 sea buckthorn seedlings (I don't remember the variety) when buying, the seller explained that you need to plant next to it - a male and female bush (for pollination).
I am looking for information on how to properly breed sea buckthorn with green cuttings.
I liked the article because the planting methods and the bushes themselves are indicated (female and male, which is very useful for an inexperienced gardener).
I will do my landing method a little differently.
I take wet moss, add river sand, mix everything in a ratio of 90% forest moss, 10% sifted river sand.
I will not use stimulants.
I will put the finished mass in tetrapaketki (height 30 cm) narrow, and in boxes.
I do not use any greenhouses or other methods.
I will report the results in a month.