Choosing the right stock of the right kind is of the utmost importance for long-lasting and productive pear trees. The height of the tree, its winter hardiness and the start of fruiting depend on the stock. In order to be able to make an informed choice of seedlings when buying, knowing the basic minimum of information about rootstocks is necessary for every gardener, even if you do not plan to ever graft garden trees with your own hands.
Obtaining planting material for cultivated pear varieties is not an easy task. Under normal conditions, pear trees do not form root suckers, their cuttings and layering take root with great difficulty and far from always, and when sowing seeds, a heterogeneous offspring is obtained, and only a few seedlings at least partially retain the valuable qualities of the original variety. Therefore, the only practical way of propagating pear varieties is grafting onto various easily propagated rootstocks. On a dwarf rootstock, a pear grows undersized, convenient for care and collection of fruits, and begins to bear fruit a little earlier. The use of special flexible rootstocks gets pear trees that are easily bent down for the winter for wintering under the snow.
Pear on quince is undersized, fast-growing and fruitful
To grow standard seedlings, young plants are grafted at a height of 5–8 centimeters from the surface of the earth. In amateur gardening, crown grafts are also often used in relation to mature trees (up to 15 years). This allows you to restore a tree damaged by frost or replace an unsuccessful variety with a more valuable one.
To obtain varietal seedlings, the rootstocks are grafted low above the ground in the first - second year of their growth.
The main criteria for choosing a pear stock:
The tallest, strongest and most durable trees are obtained by grafting cultivars onto wild pear seedlings. Several types of wild pears are suitable for these purposes, all of them are vigorous trees up to 8-15 meters high, with a deeply penetrating tap root system. To plant pears on seed stock, groundwater should be no closer than 1.5–2 meters from the ground surface. Vigorous pears bear fruit abundantly up to 50–100 years, the first fruits appear 5–10 years after inoculation.
In the European part of Russia, the wild Ussuri pear grows poorly and has low compatibility with cultivated varieties, but it has been successfully used for hybridization with European pears when breeding winter-hardy northern varieties.
In the early 1990s, my grandfather successfully planted varietal pears on the seedlings of a huge wild pear with small fruits growing in our garden. Of those grandfather's vaccinations, Lada and Chizhovskaya still bear fruit, delighting me with tasty fruits no worse than the southern ones. I liquidated a couple more surviving pears with lost labels in the early 2000s - I did not like the quality of their fruits, the varieties turned out to be at the level of local semi-cultivated pears-rot.
For sowing, you can use the seeds of wild pears that grow well in the area, semi-crops and proven winter-hardy varieties.
Ripe wild pears are harvested under the trees in September - October
For sowing, take large, undamaged, well-ripened seeds.
For a direct culture, the distance between seeds when sowing is at least 10 centimeters
The main features of a seedling on a seed stock:
Saplings on seed stock have a pronounced taproot and a characteristic bend at the grafting site
In the southern regions, to obtain dwarf trees, pears are used as a rootstock of vegetatively propagated clonal forms of quince, which have a densely branched fibrous root system.
There are no zoned dwarf rootstocks for pears in the central and northern regions.
Pear trees on a quince rootstock grow no higher than 3-4 meters. The maximum lifespan of a pear on a quince is no more than 20–40 years, the first fruits appear in the third - fourth year after vaccination.
Saplings on clonal quince stock have a densely branched fibrous root system
Quince has a shallow root system, so it can grow in areas with groundwater at a depth of 1 meter from the surface of the earth. It tolerates slight soil salinity, but grows poorly on calcareous soils with a high lime content. Quince is very light-requiring and needs regular watering. Due to the shallow bedding of the roots, trees grafted onto quince require additional supports, especially on light sandy soils.
Many pear varieties are poorly compatible with quince. To overcome this incompatibility, a highly compatible variety (Kure, Ilyinka, Bere Gardi, Bere Ardanpon) is first grafted onto a quince, and already on it the variety whose fruits they want to receive. Quince VA-29 is compatible with more cultivars of pear than Angzher quince.
Quince seedlings are not used as rootstocks for pears due to their heterogeneity, unpredictable winter hardiness and very frequent cases of incompatibility with the scion.
Novice gardeners of the middle lane often confuse the real quince with the more winter-hardy chaenomeles (Japanese quince). Chaenomeles is not suitable as a pear stock. It is very easy to distinguish them:
The most reliable and convenient method for propagating clonal quince rootstocks is vertical layering. They are obtained in this way:
To obtain vertical layering, uterine bushes are spud with earth
Rooted cuttings are planted in a nursery for rearing
Once every 3-4 years, the mother bushes must be given a rest, leaving them to grow freely without pruning.
The stock is considered ready for grafting when, at the level of 5-10 centimeters from the soil level (the point of future grafting), its thickness will be no less than a pencil.
When growing seedlings, two main methods of grafting are used:
Budding - summer eye (kidney) grafting
Copulation - spring grafting by cutting
In addition to quince and various types of wild pears, amateur gardeners successfully graft cultivated varieties of pears also on ordinary red mountain ash, chokeberry (chokeberry) and irga. Occasionally, various types of cotoneaster and hawthorns are also used as rootstocks for pears, but the information on these plants is very contradictory, and so far there are significantly fewer successes than failures.
Contrary to the widespread misconception, it is absolutely useless to plant a pear in the crown of adult fruiting apple trees, and on seedlings of wild apple trees, and on weak apple rootstocks (various dosen and paradisses, including the very popular M9 rootstock). Vaccinations of pears on an apple tree easily take root, but they do not give normal growth, much less fruit, and after two or three years they inevitably die off.
The cultivar of pear with such a grafting does not at all get a record winter hardiness of the stock!
Vaccinations on irga and chokeberry for the winter are bent to the ground and fastened with hooks for wintering under the snow. The young trunks of these shrubs are very flexible and bend easily. Due to the incomplete accretion of the pear scion with the stock, such grafts are never durable, and in 5-7 years they inevitably break off, but the first pear fruits can be obtained already in the second or third year after vaccination.
A pear on an irga and chokeberry for the winter is bent to the ground for wintering under the snow
A pear on a red rowan tree is much more durable. Northern pear varieties are grafted onto mountain ash where they can grow normally due to climatic conditions, but there is no way to find local wild pears for rootstock production.
Rowan, chokeberry and irga need moderately moist, loose soil with acidity in the range of 5.5–7.0. Rowan and chokeberry are very light-requiring and do not tolerate too close (closer than 1.5–2 meters from the surface of the earth) groundwater. Irga has a shallow root system and can grow in underground waters 1 meter from the soil surface. Irga itself is relatively shade-tolerant, but to be used as a pear stock, it must be planted in well-lit places; in shading, grafts take root poorly and do not bear fruit.
My grandfather experimented with grafting varietal pears on young wild red rowan seedlings taken from a nearby forest. These grafts took root well, but, unfortunately, due to a lack of space on the site, the experiments were carried out in the shade of a huge apple tree, so we did not wait for pears on the mountain ash. But the grafted trees themselves existed in strong shade for more than ten years, giving almost no vertical growth or lateral branches.
Rowan, Chokeberry and Irga can be grown from seeds. They are extracted from fully ripe fruits (irga ripens in July - August, rowan and chokeberry in September - October), washed, slightly dried and stored in paper bags until sowing. The technology of growing their seedlings is similar to growing seedlings of wild pears, but the depth of planting seeds is only 1–2 centimeters.
Irga and chokeberry can also be propagated by root suckers that appear near bushes. They are carefully dug up in early spring and transplanted to a permanent place. You can vaccinate the next year after transplantation.
It is recommended to leave 2-3 branches unvaccinated on each bush so that the plant does not die prematurely.
The correct choice of a suitable rootstock is one of the most important prerequisites for laying an orchard. The variety of proven pear rootstocks makes it possible to grow pear orchards and obtain high yields of delicious fruits in almost any region except the northernmost ones.
Rate the article:
(2 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Pear is a very tasty and healthy fruit. Few gardeners will refuse to plant several varieties of fruitful, tasty pears in the garden. However, this plant reproduces with great difficulty. Under normal conditions, the tree practically does not produce root suckers. Its cuttings and cuttings take root with great difficulty and are very capricious. The most reliable way to propagate almost any variety is grafting onto a suitable base tree.
The latter is called the stock. He does not determine the type and variety of the scion, but provides the latter with nutrition, as well as additional qualities not characteristic of the scion. So, the frost resistance and unpretentiousness of a plant is determined precisely by the stock. This feature of the vaccination turns the procedure from a forced method of breeding a pear into a very useful event.
Accordingly, grafting on a rootstock is used in very many cases: when a pear is propagated, when thermophilic varieties are planted, which by themselves cannot withstand severe cold, to preserve a tested variety if an old tree dies. But for the grafting to succeed, it is necessary to choose the right stock.
First, we will consider the main clonal varieties, then we will go over the well-known universal seedlings, and then we will find out the “rootstock” preferences of Russian gardeners.
We will choose from each group one or two of the most tolerant and productive varieties.
Recommended cultivars for grafting:
A common disadvantage of vigorous rootstocks is the relatively late term for the grafted tree to start fruiting - 6–7 years.
Compatible with all varieties of apple trees. Scion for 54-118 and MM-106 bear fruit with 4-5 years, and live for 3-4 decades. Both rootstocks are easily propagated by layering (usually vertical), yielding up to 6-7 clones per season. The roots of adult specimens reach a depth of 120 cm, without fear of high groundwater and reliably keeping the tree from falling over.
These varieties increase the resistance of cultivated apple trees to unfavorable natural factors:
Both rootstocks are ideal for grafting winter (i.e. very late) apple cultivars:
Grade 54-118 is often used as an intercalary insert. This is the name of the part of the stem of an individual plant, placed between the stock and the scion and serves to enhance drought and frost resistance, as well as the yield of the tree. MM-106 has one serious drawback - a high susceptibility to late blight.
This rootstock is compatible with zoned (acclimatized) varieties of the Moscow region and southern regions of Russia. Without shelter and snow cover, the roots of the plant freeze under an air temperature of -25. -27 ° C. The variety is very convenient for budding (grafting with a piece of wood with a bud), since the bark of the tree is easily separated from the trunk. M-7 is resistant to constant excess or lack of moisture in the soil. It reproduces without problems by vertical layers: up to 8 pieces per year, rooting lasts 10-30 days.
Rootstock M-7 is often used as a "shortening" base for vigorous varieties:
Apple trees grafted to M-7 bear fruit for 3-4 years, immediately giving ultra-high yields due to a sharp slowdown in tree growth, which is very intense at first. With full-fledged top dressing, regular watering, competent prevention of scab and the fight against moths, yields can reach 500–650 kg from one hundred square meters (in normal conditions - 150–400 kg) with a planting scheme of 4 × 2 m, that is, from 12–13 trees.
Semi-dwarf apple trees can be planted according to the 3 × 2 m scheme (15-16 specimens per one hundred square meters), if in the future you regularly cut off the annual growth of skeletal branches to 2-3-year-old wood.
M-9 is the most popular low-growing rootstock variety in Russia. Apple trees live on it for 30–40 years, bearing fruit from 3 years of age and giving 10–35 kg from one tree per season. The root system of the stock lies at a depth of only 60 cm, and the wood of the M-9 is rather fragile - therefore, the plant needs support. A root-fixing turf layer in the trunk circle will be very useful. Watering is required as the topsoil dries up.
Possible regions for growing apple trees on M-9 in the Russian Federation:
The main grafts for M-9:
Less known, but more promising is the B7–35 variety. Here are its advantages over M-9 (with the indicated scion-rootstock combinations):
When propagating M-9 by layering, it should be taken into account that out of every 7–8 shoots of one mother plant, only 2–3 pieces develop a viable root system (they take root in 20–45 days). There are almost no dormant buds on the root collar of the rootstock, therefore cloning in a “horizontal” way is preferable (see instructions below).
The general and main advantage of such rootstocks (in addition to their versatility) is that the apple trees grafted on them begin to give full-fledged harvests as early as 2-3 years. And here are the personal advantages of each variety:
Tested varieties for grafting:
Unfortunately, both rootstocks have extremely fragile wood and are very poorly rooted in the soil. In view of this, support for trees should be provided in the first year after grafting. Another significant drawback of superdwarfs is the short lifespan of scions (about 15 years).
Among the cultivated stocks of apple trees for seed reproduction, the following are most often used:
But here are the most productive and unpretentious, and therefore the most popular wild seedlings:
The same rootstock is capable of forming trees of different heights, depending on the growing conditions. A typical example is the A-2 clonal variety, whose grafts can be both medium-sized (on ordinary soils) and vigorous (on fertile black soil). The dimensions of the grafted tree are also artificially regulated by annual pruning of the main conductor (the most developed skeletal branch), due to which the central point of growth each time passes to the second largest shoot of the crown. This leads to inhibition of the growth of the aboveground part of the apple tree.
But what kind of rootstocks are preferred by Russian gardeners.
I have the leading stocks for apples - M-9 and MM-106. M-9 is very popular in our Krasnodar Territory. A tribute to fashion, so to speak. The dwarfs are the future!
In my opinion, if you know how to graft, growing a dwarf apple tree is not a problem. Much depends on the type of soil and water table in the area where the garden is located. If the groundwater level is high, this is a reason to use a dwarf stock, and when it is low, and even sandy soils, a dwarf stock will give a weak root system and it will be difficult for an apple tree to increase a full-fledged crop. On our sands near Moscow, for example, dwarf rootstocks do not live long. There is only one way out - to have a stock with a normal root, make an insert on the trunk - a dwarf, and already graft on it what you need. We have such an apple tree, it is clearly over 60 years old, the crown has always been very compact.
http: //websad.rf/archdis.php? code = 1072897 & subrub =% CF% EB% EE% E4% EE% E2% FB% E5% 20% E4% E5% F0% E5% E2% FC% FF
In my opinion and experience, apple trees in the north of Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia should be grown obliquely, with small trees with an understated crown: either on a dwarf rootstock or in a bush form. Naturally, dwarfs will need more intensive pruning of the annual growth of 2-3 buds, but all these efforts will more than pay off with their grown fruits.
Zakhvatkin M.N., candidate of biological sciences
Wild species are suitable plants for sweet cherry rootstock. In the process of these manipulations, rootstock plants merge with others, creating a single system. There are many subtleties and nuances that must be considered before starting this process.
The ideal plant for a pear is its wild prototype. The cultivated varieties of this fruit tree grow well together with wild-type seedlings and, unlike other dwarf trees, they are tall and can delight with their fruits for a long time. A wild pear called Ussuriyskaya grows in Siberia and, due to the peculiarities of its root system, needs more moisture than other species, but it is resistant to severe frosts. Therefore, for a pear, it is necessary to prepare all the necessary conditions in advance. Not everyone knows that another great option through which the fruits of this tree are grown is quince. It should be clarified that as a result of this process, dwarf trees are obtained, growing in the southern part of Russia.
If you want to feast on cherries, you need to know exactly which suitable plants can be used for the rootstock process. A simple berry must be grown with seeds, since they merge with almost all varieties and at the same time provide high yields. Instead of the sour variety of this berry, you can use varieties of such seedlings as Shubinka, Vladimirka, Rastunya. For artificially grown berries, a variety such as antipka is also used as a suitable plant, but it does not withstand frost and is bred with seeds.
As far as the wild cherry variety is concerned, it should be noted that it has many advantages. Cherry seeds and seedlings germinate rapidly, which is its main advantage, and thus no shoots are formed. The cherry trees that have been used for the rootstock will produce a selective harvest for a long time. But this variety also has a drawback - it does not tolerate low temperatures, which is why it is rarely used.
If antipka is selected as a suitable plant, then other results are observed. Antipka plants are frost-resistant, having egg-shaped leaves, the most interesting thing is that these trees have a dwarf form. It became widespread in the North Caucasus, Ukraine and Asia. During flowering, the flowers of the tree spill an almond aroma and have small fruits. On the dwarf rootstock of this plant, they are grafted for cherry berries and create new varieties and forms. Antipka is used most of all in the Volga region and in the North Caucasus, as they grow very vigorously. During grafting, it is this dwarf plant species that is used, since with their help magnificent trees on the rootstocks are obtained. These plants have a number of advantages, so almost every gardener grows them:
Despite a number of advantages, this variety still has disadvantages, namely, it does not combine well with certain species. But many summer residents grew and harvested using this suitable plant. This variety is also used in the northern regions of Russia, but one has to face a number of problems associated with strong temperature changes. Grown with this plant, the new trees show excellent results. But it must be borne in mind that this plant demonstrates itself in different ways, and development depends on the degree of soil fertility. If the land is not fertile, too moist and contains a lot of salt, then the plant is unlikely to take root and give appropriate fruits. Although there are cases when it takes root, such trees are not distinguished by their durability, therefore, summer residents are advised to study the condition of the soil well, and only then begin the grafting process.
Advice: If this plant does not take root, then a wild type of sweet cherry is used, since in practice it has demonstrated power, high yield.
The most important advantage of this species is the ability to graft with almost all varieties. The cherry tree is also used as a suitable plant, especially in the southern parts of Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
In any case, if you decide to start the vaccination process, then it is best to calculate everything to the smallest detail, weigh all the pros and cons. You also need to carefully consider the selection of a suitable plant for grafting. For this fruit tree, almost everything plays an important role in getting the desired result. The rootstock and cherries need to be given great attention. It is necessary to take into account both the variety of the plant, and the technique with which you are going to carry out all the manipulations, and the time of the beginning of the vaccination.