So how do peas grow? It seems that this is such a widespread plant, but indeed, many novice gardeners do not know the answer to this question. How does this vegetable familiar from childhood grow? Let's try to figure it out.
Probably everyone loves peas. Of course, you won't please everyone with pea porridge, but canned green peas are just a delight, without which a festive salad cannot do. And the kids? How they love fresh green peas. For a few small people, eating a small plantation will not be a big and long-term labor. So how do you grow peas on your backyard?
Peas belong to the legume family. It is an annual self-pollinating green creature. A climbing plant, the height of which can exceed 200 cm. There are tendrils along its stem that help the peas to cling to the support. Thousands of years ago, it was used for food.
Pea cultivation includes sugar and fodder species
Pea cultivation includes sugar and fodder species. The sugar variety is used for canning, tastes better and has larger grains (depending on the variety, of course). Forage varieties are intended for animal feeding, are grown in large areas and are more unpretentious in care. They have a less pronounced sweet taste (small peas).
The cultivation of legumes is very valuable for their ability to grow as green manures. Its roots can store nitrogen in the environment and enrich the soil with it. Therefore, after planting peas, almost all crops grow well.
The described species is cold-resistant, because the seeds can begin to germinate already at 4-6 degrees of heat. And even if there are frosts down to -4 degrees, it will not hurt young plants. Thanks to this, seeds can be sown in early spring, starting from April 15-20. Moreover, if you have early ripening varieties, you can plant them several times, until the beginning of July.
Polka dots love a lot of light, so when choosing a garden, shaded places will not work. It is very undemanding to the soil, but you will harvest more and larger crops from loose, enriched land. The bed should also not be oversaturated with fertilizers, otherwise all substances will provoke rapid growth of tops, and the pods will be rare and small.
Video about the benefits and secrets of growing
It is good if the soil contains a lot of potash and phosphorus fertilizers, and the acidity of the soil is low.
From autumn, a portion of rotted manure, compost can be introduced into the garden bed, into the ground on the site, and then by spring all the substances necessary for rich fruiting will be ready in the soil.
It is possible to sow in the ground, both dry and germinated seeds. The main thing is to provide abundant watering for small plants during the germination period. If you are sowing non-germinated seeds, then it is advisable to do this a few days earlier than soaked seeds.
To soak the seeds, they are wrapped in a damp cloth, placed on a saucer and poured a little with water. The water is changed every day. At the first hatching, sprouts can be planted in the ground.
To soak the seeds, they are wrapped in a damp cloth, placed on a saucer and poured a little with water.
Do not forget to spill the grooves abundantly so that the swollen grains get into the same humid environment. This moisture level must be maintained throughout the growth period of the small pea. Otherwise, the sprouts that have hatched may simply dry out.
There is a method of seed preparation, in which viable seeds are determined and at the same time diseased seeds are removed. To do this, add 30 g of salt to 1 liter of water and immerse the seeds there. The floating grains are removed, the ones that have settled to the bottom are washed from salt, dried to their initial state and planted.
Planting is carried out in grooves with a depth of 4-5 cm. If the soils are heavy, then you can plant them not so deeply - 2-3 cm. The distance between grooves is 30 cm, in a row 6-8 cm. You can plant seeds according to a two-line scheme. To do this, make two grooves at a distance of 15-20 cm, and then make a gap of 50 cm for easy collection of pods.
Video plot on how to plant sprouted peas in open ground
The pea cultivation technology will not present any particular difficulties. Like all garden crops, it is necessary to water, loosen, fertilize and harvest on time.
It is important, when the first sprouts appear, to cover the bed from the birds. This can be done with either mesh or thin acrylic.
After abundant (9-10 liters per 1 sq. M.) Watering, the soil must be loosened to ensure sufficient air access. And to reduce moisture evaporation, the soil between the grooves must be mulched. Peas will respond well to hilling, which is best done after watering.
For young seedlings, it is imperative to use props, otherwise the stems may break and get tangled. To do this, immediately after planting or when the first shoots appear, you need to install retaining elements. Which one you put on depends on the availability of material and invention. There is an option in which a peg is driven in at the edges of the furrow. A net is attached to these stakes, it is possible with a rare lattice (10x10 cm). You can also often place sticks along the dotted grooves. The main thing is that the antennae of the plants have something to cling to.
Pea cultivation technology will not cause any particular difficulties
Flowering, depending on the variety, occurs 30-50 days after germination. And after about a month, you can start harvesting the fruits. Moreover, the collection of ripe pods will stimulate the growth of new peas. In this case, you can collect gifts in 2-3 days. Fees vary for different food preparation:
If you want to get ripe seeds, then you need to wait for the ripening of the lower pods. The field of this plant is completely cut off at the root and placed for ripening in a non-sunny ventilated room. So you can get seeds for the next year, but remember that germination lasts only for 2-3 years.
After harvesting, the tops can be used for composting, and the roots will serve as an excellent fertilizer for subsequent crops. The soil for the next year will have a good structure, saturated with the necessary substances. But remember that legumes can be planted on the same bed only after 5 years, otherwise there is a risk of developing diseases.
Video clip how to put supports
You can use legumes as green manure. For this, dry seeds are sown in the second half of summer in a garden bed with already harvested crops. It is not necessary to maintain planting along the lines, the main thing is to embed dry seeds in the ground so that the birds do not peck.
After the emergence of seedlings, the growth of the pods is not needed, they can be immediately dug up and embedded in the ground. Young plants will enrich the soil with the necessary microelements and serve as a good fertilizer for subsequent crops.
Lambda-based chemicals can be used to combat
The most common disease for this species, according to gardeners, is the leaf roll or pea moth. It is a small caterpillar that hibernates in the soil.
The butterfly flies out just in the period of abundant flowering, and lays eggs on the stems and leaves of plants. Caterpillars appear and eat the peas. Thus, your rich harvest can be reduced to zero.
To combat, you can use chemicals based on lambda - cyhalothrin. Only the use of this agent should be carried out before the formation of the fruit. Otherwise, the chemical can enter food through the crop. The difficulty lies in the fact that at the stage of processing, the butterflies have not yet laid eggs, and spraying will not give the desired result.
From folk remedies, you can use double spraying with infusions of dandelion leaves or onion peels. Infusions of tomato tops or garlic can also be effective. The tops need about 3 kg per bucket of water, and garlic - 20 g. The chopped components are poured with water and insisted for a day. After the plants are sprayed.
Moreover, both types of infusion (tomato and garlic) help in the fight against such a pest as the pea aphid.
Also, peas are often subject to diseases such as powdery mildew. It starts from excessive moisture and thickening of crops. From such a disease, you can spray the plantings with an infusion of sow thistle - a bucket of water is needed for 300 g of leaves.
After that, the garden is treated twice with a week break.
Video about the tricks of growing and the secrets of peas
To combat the main common diseases, it is recommended to maintain a break in planting for at least 5 years in one place. It is also necessary to remove plant residues well after harvest or to bury them thoroughly. And it is better to burn stems damaged by diseases.
It is advisable to observe the sowing time so that the fruits can form before the beginning of abundant humidification of the air or the numerous emergence of insects.
Not everyone has the opportunity to have a dacha or spend the whole summer there. How to grow sweet peas at home, in boxes on balconies and loggias?
First you need to decide on the cultivation variety. Sugar, they have a sweet taste, so they are more common. Peeling varieties are more unpretentious in care.
The technology of cultivating peas at home is not very different from the garden one. You need to prepare fertile soil for planting and containers or wooden boxes in which the homemade beans will grow.
It is good if there is something loosening in the ground - straw, sawdust or humus. This will provide better air access to the roots of future seedlings.
As with garden seeds, home seedlings can be soaked or sown dry. The soil should be well moistened and watering should be done frequently and abundantly.
The technology of cultivating peas at home does not differ much from the garden one.
It is best to plant the seedlings at home in a warm room first. And then, with the onset of warm days, you can plant a seating on a balcony or loggia, for a more comfortable growth. At home, you need to plant seeds closer to each other due to a lack of planting space. The distance between the seeds is 1-2 cm, between the rows - 3-5 cm. Planting the plantings to a depth of 2-3 cm.
After the seedlings germinate, we transplant the seedlings to a loggia or balcony, with a distance between rows of 20 cm and in a row of 5-8 cm. Young crops need to be watered abundantly.
When the peas reach a height of about 20 cm, you need to install a net or sticks, for which the antennae will cling and prevent the stems from breaking.
Timely watering, loosening and a sunny location are the rules that will ensure you harvest without even leaving your home. The use of dressings will increase the likelihood of satisfactory fruiting. These are, first of all, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and fertilizers containing copper, which help to protect your green creatures from diseases.
Sowing and Care Video
Fruiting occurs in about 30 days from the beginning of flowering. Ripe pods should be harvested frequently, almost every day. It is better to do this in the morning. And at home, you can remove a pound of ripe beans from one stem.
So, planting peas, both in summer cottages and on balconies or loggias, is a rather easy process. As in caring for any crops, the main thing is to know the rules of cultivation and follow them.
When feeding peas, you need to follow certain rules:
When self-composing mixtures for fertilizing peas, it is important to remember the compatibility of various substances. Some of them can neutralize or enhance the effect of other elements.
Peas are from the legume family. It is a herbaceous annual with a hollow stem that branches and clings to vertical supports with tendrils. The height of the plant, depending on the variety, ranges from 15 cm to 2.5 m. The flowers are mainly white or purple, butterflies.
The fruits are of two types:
The first type is suitable for canning, the second is used in the preparation of salads and soups.
This plant is resistant to cold, but the temperature optimum is 16-20 ’C. A distinctive feature of vegetable peas is the ability to assimilate atmospheric nitrogen.
Also, peas are picky about soil moisture and can only withstand short-term drought. Thanks to its developed tap root system, it can extract water from deep soil layers.
Peas contain protein, fiber, sugar, starch. It is also rich in lysine (amino acid), vitamins B, PP, A, ascorbic acid. However, people suffering from flatulence should use this vegetable with extreme caution.
In addition to the utilitarian purpose, peas will become an adornment of your decorative garden, because its green stems with twisting tendrils and beautiful flowers look like a ball of decorative wire, which looks very original.
When calculating the landing dates, it is worth considering the influence of the phases of the moon, the climate in the region. Peas are considered a cold-resistant crop. For germination, it needs an increase in soil temperature to +5 ° C. But it grows well only at + 10 ° C and above. For the formation of pods, a temperature of about +20 ° C is required. If peas are planted too early, they can subsequently stunt growth.
The Moon affects the rate of seed germination. On the growing moon, planting peas is most favorable. Seeds germinate quickly, sprouts gain strength well. On the growing moon, sap flow in the aboveground part of plants is accelerated. On the waning moon, all forces are rooted. During these periods, it is not recommended to sow seeds, transplant plants. Only root dressing and watering will be effective.
The most unfavorable are the days of the full moon and new moon. During these periods, it is impossible to carry out garden work, especially to start something new. Astrologers advise planting peas, like any other plants, in the middle of the growing moon cycle, so that the seeds have time to hatch, and the plant grows quickly. It is better to plan planting in advance in order to have time to plant the seeds before the onset of an unfavorable period.
The growing region must be taken into account when planting peas. This crop is cold-resistant, therefore, in the Moscow region, in central Russia, you can sow it at the end of April, when the soil warms up to +5 ° C. In the northern regions, peas can be planted from the beginning of May. In the south, you can plant a culture earlier (from April 15). You also need to focus on weather conditions. If the winter has dragged on and warm weather has not settled on the street, it is worth postponing the landing. Do not forget about the likelihood of recurrent frost. In central Russia, they can occur in mid-May. If the culture germinates at this time, the young shoots will die. There are planting days for the garden for 2021 both in April and in May, in June.
Green peas can be planted until the end of May and even in June. On average, the growing season is 45 days after germination. Experienced gardeners not only select different varieties, but also plant peas on the plots in several stages so that the harvest ripens gradually. In July, it is better to refuse planting, since the culture is afraid of extreme heat, so it will grow poorly.
Favorable days for planting peas in 2021 can be calculated according to the lunar calendar. You need to focus on the table:
|Moon Phase / Month||April||May||June|
|The growing moon (auspicious days)||13-26||12-25||11-23|
|Waning moon (unfavorable days)||1-11, 28-30||1-10, 27-31||1-9,|
In accordance with the lunar calendar, you need to plant peas in the Urals on May 5-6, and even better from May 23 to May 31. Sowing earlier is too risky. In the southern regions, it is recommended to plant the crop from April 24 to May 6. When planting peas, it is also necessary to take into account the zodiac sign in which the moon moves. For this culture, dates are considered ideal when the Moon is in Taurus and in Pisces. In 2021, the best days to plant these crops are April 23-24, May 20-22, May 25-26.
An unfavorable period falls in mid-May in 2021. If the weather allows and you want to get an earlier harvest, you can deviate from the recommendations of astrologers. But under the building ban is planting plants in the full moon and new moon. In 2021, you cannot plant peas on April 23, May 7 and 22, June 5.
Experienced gardeners advise adding special fertilizing to the soil no more than once every 7 days. It is recommended to purchase HB-101 as a growth stimulant. Its only drawback is its rather high cost.
But it is important to know that the consumption of the drug for feeding the plant is minimal, and one bottle of the product will last for a long time.
For effective plant growth, pea leaves are sprayed with this preparation. Before spraying, you need to dilute the product in settled water according to the instructions.
It is effective to use Fertik or Kemira special fertilizers as root feeding. They contain all the necessary elements for proper development and good fruiting of peas.
While watching the video, you will learn about the cultivation of peas.
Getting a great harvest of ripe peas is a snap. It is important to know the basic guidelines for planting and caring for a plant.
Anyone who carefully reads this article and follows the tips listed in it will be able to enjoy fresh herbs and sweet peas in the midst of the winter cold.
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Figured out how to plant peas in open ground. In addition to proper planting and watering, the culture requires prevention and treatment in case of fungal, bacterial diseases or parasite attacks. Peas are subject to the following pathologies:
In addition, there are many more pathologies that require treatment. when the first symptoms appear, it is necessary to feed and spray with antifungal or antibacterial drugs. It is also recommended to treat the soil before sowing, because most pathogenic microorganisms live in the soil and wait for the moment for intensive development.
Root rot - fungal disease
When planting peas in open ground, you need to know that parasites attack it:
To combat bears, slugs and snails, you can use mashed eggshells, which are introduced into the ground. Antiseptics, potassium permanganate, soap or garlic solution can be used against aphids, butterflies and plant ants. The eggs will die from irrigation, and because of the smell, new insects will come to this place.
Summing up, it should be noted that planting peas in open ground will not be difficult even for a child. The culture does not require increased attention to itself, it can grow all season from early spring to late autumn, depending on the variety and care. Planting peas in the spring in the ground will bring a harvest by the beginning of summer.
Planting peas in open ground, video:
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